Induced hypothermia in patients with septic shock and respiratory failure (CASS): a randomised, controlled, open-label trial

Cooling and Surviving Septic Shock (CASS) Trial Collaboration, Daniel Hägi-Pedersen (Member of author group)

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Abstract

Background: Animal models of serious infection suggest that 24 h of induced hypothermia improves circulatory and respiratory function and reduces mortality. We tested the hypothesis that a reduction of core temperature to 32–34°C attenuates organ dysfunction and reduces mortality in ventilator-dependent patients with septic shock. Methods: In this randomised, controlled, open-label trial, we recruited patients from ten intensive care units (ICUs) in three countries in Europe and North America. Inclusion criteria for patients with severe sepsis or septic shock were a mean arterial pressure of less than 70 mm Hg, mechanical ventilation in an ICU, age at least 50 years, predicted length of stay in the ICU at least 24 h, and recruitment into the study within 6 h of fulfilling inclusion criteria. Exclusion criteria were uncontrolled bleeding, clinically important bleeding disorder, recent open surgery, pregnancy or breastfeeding, or involuntary psychiatric admission. We randomly allocated patients 1:1 (with variable block sizes ranging from four to eight; stratified by predictors of mortality, age, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, and study site) to routine thermal management or 24 h of induced hypothermia (target 32–34°C) followed by 48 h of normothermia (36–38°C). The primary endpoint was 30 day all-cause mortality in the modified intention-to-treat population (all randomly allocated patients except those for whom consent was withdrawn or who were discovered to meet an exclusion criterion after randomisation but before receiving the trial intervention). Patients and health-care professionals giving the intervention were not masked to treatment allocation, but assessors of the primary outcome were. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01455116. Findings: Between Nov 1, 2011, and Nov 4, 2016, we screened 5695 patients. After recruitment of 436 of the planned 560 participants, the trial was terminated for futility (220 [50%] randomly allocated to hypothermia and 216 [50%] to routine thermal management). In the hypothermia group, 96 (44·2%) of 217 died within 30 days versus 77 (35·8%) of 215 in the routine thermal management group (difference 8·4% [95% CI −0·8 to 17·6]; relative risk 1·2 [1·0–1·6]; p=0·07]). Interpretation: Among patients with septic shock and ventilator-dependent respiratory failure, induced hypothermia does not reduce mortality. Induced hypothermia should not be used in patients with septic shock. Funding: Trygfonden, Lundbeckfonden, and the Danish National Research Foundation.

Original languageEnglish
JournalThe Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Volume6
Issue number3
Pages (from-to)183-192
ISSN2213-2600
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018

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Septic Shock
Respiratory Insufficiency
Intensive Care Units
Mechanical Ventilators
Hypothermia
Medical Futility
APACHE
6-chloropenicillanic acid S-sulfoxide
Random Allocation
North America
Length of Stay
Arterial Pressure
Delivery of Health Care
Research
Population

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@article{2367f2518b71405f80a7344340860c73,
title = "Induced hypothermia in patients with septic shock and respiratory failure (CASS): a randomised, controlled, open-label trial",
abstract = "Background: Animal models of serious infection suggest that 24 h of induced hypothermia improves circulatory and respiratory function and reduces mortality. We tested the hypothesis that a reduction of core temperature to 32–34°C attenuates organ dysfunction and reduces mortality in ventilator-dependent patients with septic shock. Methods: In this randomised, controlled, open-label trial, we recruited patients from ten intensive care units (ICUs) in three countries in Europe and North America. Inclusion criteria for patients with severe sepsis or septic shock were a mean arterial pressure of less than 70 mm Hg, mechanical ventilation in an ICU, age at least 50 years, predicted length of stay in the ICU at least 24 h, and recruitment into the study within 6 h of fulfilling inclusion criteria. Exclusion criteria were uncontrolled bleeding, clinically important bleeding disorder, recent open surgery, pregnancy or breastfeeding, or involuntary psychiatric admission. We randomly allocated patients 1:1 (with variable block sizes ranging from four to eight; stratified by predictors of mortality, age, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, and study site) to routine thermal management or 24 h of induced hypothermia (target 32–34°C) followed by 48 h of normothermia (36–38°C). The primary endpoint was 30 day all-cause mortality in the modified intention-to-treat population (all randomly allocated patients except those for whom consent was withdrawn or who were discovered to meet an exclusion criterion after randomisation but before receiving the trial intervention). Patients and health-care professionals giving the intervention were not masked to treatment allocation, but assessors of the primary outcome were. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01455116. Findings: Between Nov 1, 2011, and Nov 4, 2016, we screened 5695 patients. After recruitment of 436 of the planned 560 participants, the trial was terminated for futility (220 [50{\%}] randomly allocated to hypothermia and 216 [50{\%}] to routine thermal management). In the hypothermia group, 96 (44·2{\%}) of 217 died within 30 days versus 77 (35·8{\%}) of 215 in the routine thermal management group (difference 8·4{\%} [95{\%} CI −0·8 to 17·6]; relative risk 1·2 [1·0–1·6]; p=0·07]). Interpretation: Among patients with septic shock and ventilator-dependent respiratory failure, induced hypothermia does not reduce mortality. Induced hypothermia should not be used in patients with septic shock. Funding: Trygfonden, Lundbeckfonden, and the Danish National Research Foundation.",
author = "Itenov, {Theis Skovsgaard} and Johansen, {Maria Egede} and Morten Bestle and Katrin Thormar and Lars Hein and Louise Gyldensted and Anne Lindhardt and Henrik Christensen and Stine Estrup and Pedersen, {Henrik Planck} and Matthew Harmon and Soni, {Uday Kant} and Silvia Perez-Protto and Nicolai Wesche and Ulrik Skram and Petersen, {John Asger} and Thomas Mohr and Tina Waldau and Poulsen, {Lone Musaeus} and Ditte Strange and Juffermans, {Nicole P.} and Sessler, {Daniel I.} and Else T{\o}nnesen and Kirsten M{\o}ller and Kristensen, {Dennis Karsten} and Alessandro Cozzi-Lepri and Lundgren, {Jens D.} and Jensen, {Jens Ulrik} and Susanne Illkj{\ae}r and Kim Nielsen and Birgitte Andersen and Wamberg, {Christian {\AA}ge} and Andersen, {Torben Mogens} and Ole Christensen and Anne Poulsen and {Cooling and Surviving Septic Shock (CASS) Trial Collaboration} and Daniel H{\"a}gi-Pedersen",
year = "2018",
doi = "10.1016/S2213-2600(18)30004-3",
language = "English",
volume = "6",
pages = "183--192",
journal = "The Lancet Respiratory Medicine",
issn = "2213-2600",
publisher = "The Lancet Publishing Group",
number = "3",

}

Induced hypothermia in patients with septic shock and respiratory failure (CASS) : a randomised, controlled, open-label trial. / Cooling and Surviving Septic Shock (CASS) Trial Collaboration ; Hägi-Pedersen, Daniel (Member of author group).

In: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, Vol. 6, No. 3, 2018, p. 183-192.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Induced hypothermia in patients with septic shock and respiratory failure (CASS)

T2 - a randomised, controlled, open-label trial

AU - Itenov, Theis Skovsgaard

AU - Johansen, Maria Egede

AU - Bestle, Morten

AU - Thormar, Katrin

AU - Hein, Lars

AU - Gyldensted, Louise

AU - Lindhardt, Anne

AU - Christensen, Henrik

AU - Estrup, Stine

AU - Pedersen, Henrik Planck

AU - Harmon, Matthew

AU - Soni, Uday Kant

AU - Perez-Protto, Silvia

AU - Wesche, Nicolai

AU - Skram, Ulrik

AU - Petersen, John Asger

AU - Mohr, Thomas

AU - Waldau, Tina

AU - Poulsen, Lone Musaeus

AU - Strange, Ditte

AU - Juffermans, Nicole P.

AU - Sessler, Daniel I.

AU - Tønnesen, Else

AU - Møller, Kirsten

AU - Kristensen, Dennis Karsten

AU - Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro

AU - Lundgren, Jens D.

AU - Jensen, Jens Ulrik

AU - Illkjær, Susanne

AU - Nielsen, Kim

AU - Andersen, Birgitte

AU - Wamberg, Christian Åge

AU - Andersen, Torben Mogens

AU - Christensen, Ole

AU - Poulsen, Anne

AU - Cooling and Surviving Septic Shock (CASS) Trial Collaboration

A2 - Hägi-Pedersen, Daniel

PY - 2018

Y1 - 2018

N2 - Background: Animal models of serious infection suggest that 24 h of induced hypothermia improves circulatory and respiratory function and reduces mortality. We tested the hypothesis that a reduction of core temperature to 32–34°C attenuates organ dysfunction and reduces mortality in ventilator-dependent patients with septic shock. Methods: In this randomised, controlled, open-label trial, we recruited patients from ten intensive care units (ICUs) in three countries in Europe and North America. Inclusion criteria for patients with severe sepsis or septic shock were a mean arterial pressure of less than 70 mm Hg, mechanical ventilation in an ICU, age at least 50 years, predicted length of stay in the ICU at least 24 h, and recruitment into the study within 6 h of fulfilling inclusion criteria. Exclusion criteria were uncontrolled bleeding, clinically important bleeding disorder, recent open surgery, pregnancy or breastfeeding, or involuntary psychiatric admission. We randomly allocated patients 1:1 (with variable block sizes ranging from four to eight; stratified by predictors of mortality, age, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, and study site) to routine thermal management or 24 h of induced hypothermia (target 32–34°C) followed by 48 h of normothermia (36–38°C). The primary endpoint was 30 day all-cause mortality in the modified intention-to-treat population (all randomly allocated patients except those for whom consent was withdrawn or who were discovered to meet an exclusion criterion after randomisation but before receiving the trial intervention). Patients and health-care professionals giving the intervention were not masked to treatment allocation, but assessors of the primary outcome were. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01455116. Findings: Between Nov 1, 2011, and Nov 4, 2016, we screened 5695 patients. After recruitment of 436 of the planned 560 participants, the trial was terminated for futility (220 [50%] randomly allocated to hypothermia and 216 [50%] to routine thermal management). In the hypothermia group, 96 (44·2%) of 217 died within 30 days versus 77 (35·8%) of 215 in the routine thermal management group (difference 8·4% [95% CI −0·8 to 17·6]; relative risk 1·2 [1·0–1·6]; p=0·07]). Interpretation: Among patients with septic shock and ventilator-dependent respiratory failure, induced hypothermia does not reduce mortality. Induced hypothermia should not be used in patients with septic shock. Funding: Trygfonden, Lundbeckfonden, and the Danish National Research Foundation.

AB - Background: Animal models of serious infection suggest that 24 h of induced hypothermia improves circulatory and respiratory function and reduces mortality. We tested the hypothesis that a reduction of core temperature to 32–34°C attenuates organ dysfunction and reduces mortality in ventilator-dependent patients with septic shock. Methods: In this randomised, controlled, open-label trial, we recruited patients from ten intensive care units (ICUs) in three countries in Europe and North America. Inclusion criteria for patients with severe sepsis or septic shock were a mean arterial pressure of less than 70 mm Hg, mechanical ventilation in an ICU, age at least 50 years, predicted length of stay in the ICU at least 24 h, and recruitment into the study within 6 h of fulfilling inclusion criteria. Exclusion criteria were uncontrolled bleeding, clinically important bleeding disorder, recent open surgery, pregnancy or breastfeeding, or involuntary psychiatric admission. We randomly allocated patients 1:1 (with variable block sizes ranging from four to eight; stratified by predictors of mortality, age, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, and study site) to routine thermal management or 24 h of induced hypothermia (target 32–34°C) followed by 48 h of normothermia (36–38°C). The primary endpoint was 30 day all-cause mortality in the modified intention-to-treat population (all randomly allocated patients except those for whom consent was withdrawn or who were discovered to meet an exclusion criterion after randomisation but before receiving the trial intervention). Patients and health-care professionals giving the intervention were not masked to treatment allocation, but assessors of the primary outcome were. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01455116. Findings: Between Nov 1, 2011, and Nov 4, 2016, we screened 5695 patients. After recruitment of 436 of the planned 560 participants, the trial was terminated for futility (220 [50%] randomly allocated to hypothermia and 216 [50%] to routine thermal management). In the hypothermia group, 96 (44·2%) of 217 died within 30 days versus 77 (35·8%) of 215 in the routine thermal management group (difference 8·4% [95% CI −0·8 to 17·6]; relative risk 1·2 [1·0–1·6]; p=0·07]). Interpretation: Among patients with septic shock and ventilator-dependent respiratory failure, induced hypothermia does not reduce mortality. Induced hypothermia should not be used in patients with septic shock. Funding: Trygfonden, Lundbeckfonden, and the Danish National Research Foundation.

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U2 - 10.1016/S2213-2600(18)30004-3

DO - 10.1016/S2213-2600(18)30004-3

M3 - Journal article

AN - SCOPUS:85040113114

VL - 6

SP - 183

EP - 192

JO - The Lancet Respiratory Medicine

JF - The Lancet Respiratory Medicine

SN - 2213-2600

IS - 3

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