Increased demand of urine cultures from Danish general practice: a five-year register-based study

Michael Adelsen Jakobsen*, Mia Carøe Sørensen, Jette Brommann Kornum, Alina Zalounina Falborg, Malene Plejdrup Hansen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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Objective: To characterise and explore the development in the number and content of urine samples sent from general practice in the North Denmark Region to the Department of Clinical Microbiology (DCM) at Aalborg University Hospital during a five-year period. Design: A register-based study. Setting: General practice. Subjects: Urine samples received at DCM, Aalborg University Hospital from general practice between 2017 and 2022. Main outcome measures: Number and content of urine samples. Results: A total of 255,271 urine samples from general practice were received at DCM, with 76.1% being from female patients. Uropathogens were identified in 43.0% of the samples. During the five-year period, a 23.0% increase in the number of urine samples per person (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.23, 95% CI 1.21–1.25) was observed. A slight increase in the proportion of positive cultures (risk ratio (RR) 1.03, 95% CI 1.01–1.05) was seen. No notable change in the patient population (age, gender) was observed. Overall, Escherichia coli was the most identified uropathogen (60.4%) followed by Klebsiella spp. (8.7%) and Enterococcus spp. (7.7%). Distribution of the various uropathogens differed slightly depending on patient gender and age, importantly E. coli was less frequently observed in males aged >65 years. Conclusion: During the past five years an increasing amount of urine cultures have been requested at DCM from general practice. Importantly, the cause(s) of this increasing demand needs to be explored further in future studies.

Original languageEnglish
JournalScandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care
Issue number2
Pages (from-to)179-185
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.


  • general practice
  • microbiology testing
  • urinary tract infection
  • Urine culture
  • uropathogen
  • Urinalysis
  • Humans
  • Escherichia coli
  • Male
  • Urinary Tract Infections/epidemiology
  • General Practice
  • Denmark
  • Female
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use


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