Impact of curing time on ageing and degradation of phenol-urea-formaldehyde binder

D. V. Okhrimenko*, A. B. Thomsen, M. Ceccato, D. B. Johansson, D. Lybye, K. Bechgaard, S. Tougaard, S. L.S. Stipp

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Phenol-urea-formaldehyde (PUF) resin is one of the most important thermosetting polymers. It is widely used in many industrial and construction applications as an organic coating and adhesive. For example, in production of mineral wool for insulation, PUF is used together with the coupling agent (3-aminopropylsilane, APS) and serves as a binder for attaching mineral fibers to each other and to create the necessary mechanical integrity and shape of the final product. However, during ageing under high humidity (95%) and temperature (70 °C), hydrolysis can degrade PUF, decreasing product quality. A better understanding of the chemical processes caused by hydrolysis would promote development of more stable PUF binders. We investigated the composition and stability changes during ageing of cured PUF powder binder and mineral wool fibers where PUF binds the fibers together. We aged the samples in hot water (80 °C) or in a controlled climate chamber (70 °C; 91% RH) and analyzed them using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), element analysis and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis. We investigated the composition of species released from PUF during hydrolysis by electrospray ionization (ESI) of the aqueous solutions. The results show that the extent of PUF curing and the presence of APS as the coupling agent have an important impact on its stability. XPS revealed that poorly cured PUF contains a high fraction of –NH–CH2–O–CH2–NH– bonds which are easily hydrolyzed, while longer curing results mostly in more stable methylene bridges, –NH–CH2–NH–. We also observed evidence for urea –NH–CO– bond decomposition by ESI analysis. Mineral wool fiber ageing studies showed that PUF rearranges on the fiber surface and detaches from it, together with the APS coupling agent. This improved understanding of the effects of ageing provides clues for designing a more robust binder, leading to increased quality and stability of mineral wool insulation.

Original languageEnglish
JournalPolymer Degradation and Stability
Volume152
Pages (from-to)86-94
ISSN0141-3910
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Fingerprint

Phenol
curing
formaldehyde
ureas
Formaldehyde
Urea
phenols
Phenols
Binders
Curing
Aging of materials
degradation
Degradation
Mineral wool
wool
Coupling agents
minerals
fibers
Hydrolysis
Wool fibers

Keywords

  • Coatings
  • Fibers
  • Material stability
  • Mineral wool
  • Resin

Cite this

Okhrimenko, D. V., Thomsen, A. B., Ceccato, M., Johansson, D. B., Lybye, D., Bechgaard, K., ... Stipp, S. L. S. (2018). Impact of curing time on ageing and degradation of phenol-urea-formaldehyde binder. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 152, 86-94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2018.04.001
Okhrimenko, D. V. ; Thomsen, A. B. ; Ceccato, M. ; Johansson, D. B. ; Lybye, D. ; Bechgaard, K. ; Tougaard, S. ; Stipp, S. L.S. / Impact of curing time on ageing and degradation of phenol-urea-formaldehyde binder. In: Polymer Degradation and Stability. 2018 ; Vol. 152. pp. 86-94.
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title = "Impact of curing time on ageing and degradation of phenol-urea-formaldehyde binder",
abstract = "Phenol-urea-formaldehyde (PUF) resin is one of the most important thermosetting polymers. It is widely used in many industrial and construction applications as an organic coating and adhesive. For example, in production of mineral wool for insulation, PUF is used together with the coupling agent (3-aminopropylsilane, APS) and serves as a binder for attaching mineral fibers to each other and to create the necessary mechanical integrity and shape of the final product. However, during ageing under high humidity (95{\%}) and temperature (70 °C), hydrolysis can degrade PUF, decreasing product quality. A better understanding of the chemical processes caused by hydrolysis would promote development of more stable PUF binders. We investigated the composition and stability changes during ageing of cured PUF powder binder and mineral wool fibers where PUF binds the fibers together. We aged the samples in hot water (80 °C) or in a controlled climate chamber (70 °C; 91{\%} RH) and analyzed them using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), element analysis and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis. We investigated the composition of species released from PUF during hydrolysis by electrospray ionization (ESI) of the aqueous solutions. The results show that the extent of PUF curing and the presence of APS as the coupling agent have an important impact on its stability. XPS revealed that poorly cured PUF contains a high fraction of –NH–CH2–O–CH2–NH– bonds which are easily hydrolyzed, while longer curing results mostly in more stable methylene bridges, –NH–CH2–NH–. We also observed evidence for urea –NH–CO– bond decomposition by ESI analysis. Mineral wool fiber ageing studies showed that PUF rearranges on the fiber surface and detaches from it, together with the APS coupling agent. This improved understanding of the effects of ageing provides clues for designing a more robust binder, leading to increased quality and stability of mineral wool insulation.",
keywords = "Coatings, Fibers, Material stability, Mineral wool, Resin",
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Okhrimenko, DV, Thomsen, AB, Ceccato, M, Johansson, DB, Lybye, D, Bechgaard, K, Tougaard, S & Stipp, SLS 2018, 'Impact of curing time on ageing and degradation of phenol-urea-formaldehyde binder', Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 152, pp. 86-94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2018.04.001

Impact of curing time on ageing and degradation of phenol-urea-formaldehyde binder. / Okhrimenko, D. V.; Thomsen, A. B.; Ceccato, M.; Johansson, D. B.; Lybye, D.; Bechgaard, K.; Tougaard, S.; Stipp, S. L.S.

In: Polymer Degradation and Stability, Vol. 152, 2018, p. 86-94.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Impact of curing time on ageing and degradation of phenol-urea-formaldehyde binder

AU - Okhrimenko, D. V.

AU - Thomsen, A. B.

AU - Ceccato, M.

AU - Johansson, D. B.

AU - Lybye, D.

AU - Bechgaard, K.

AU - Tougaard, S.

AU - Stipp, S. L.S.

PY - 2018

Y1 - 2018

N2 - Phenol-urea-formaldehyde (PUF) resin is one of the most important thermosetting polymers. It is widely used in many industrial and construction applications as an organic coating and adhesive. For example, in production of mineral wool for insulation, PUF is used together with the coupling agent (3-aminopropylsilane, APS) and serves as a binder for attaching mineral fibers to each other and to create the necessary mechanical integrity and shape of the final product. However, during ageing under high humidity (95%) and temperature (70 °C), hydrolysis can degrade PUF, decreasing product quality. A better understanding of the chemical processes caused by hydrolysis would promote development of more stable PUF binders. We investigated the composition and stability changes during ageing of cured PUF powder binder and mineral wool fibers where PUF binds the fibers together. We aged the samples in hot water (80 °C) or in a controlled climate chamber (70 °C; 91% RH) and analyzed them using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), element analysis and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis. We investigated the composition of species released from PUF during hydrolysis by electrospray ionization (ESI) of the aqueous solutions. The results show that the extent of PUF curing and the presence of APS as the coupling agent have an important impact on its stability. XPS revealed that poorly cured PUF contains a high fraction of –NH–CH2–O–CH2–NH– bonds which are easily hydrolyzed, while longer curing results mostly in more stable methylene bridges, –NH–CH2–NH–. We also observed evidence for urea –NH–CO– bond decomposition by ESI analysis. Mineral wool fiber ageing studies showed that PUF rearranges on the fiber surface and detaches from it, together with the APS coupling agent. This improved understanding of the effects of ageing provides clues for designing a more robust binder, leading to increased quality and stability of mineral wool insulation.

AB - Phenol-urea-formaldehyde (PUF) resin is one of the most important thermosetting polymers. It is widely used in many industrial and construction applications as an organic coating and adhesive. For example, in production of mineral wool for insulation, PUF is used together with the coupling agent (3-aminopropylsilane, APS) and serves as a binder for attaching mineral fibers to each other and to create the necessary mechanical integrity and shape of the final product. However, during ageing under high humidity (95%) and temperature (70 °C), hydrolysis can degrade PUF, decreasing product quality. A better understanding of the chemical processes caused by hydrolysis would promote development of more stable PUF binders. We investigated the composition and stability changes during ageing of cured PUF powder binder and mineral wool fibers where PUF binds the fibers together. We aged the samples in hot water (80 °C) or in a controlled climate chamber (70 °C; 91% RH) and analyzed them using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), element analysis and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis. We investigated the composition of species released from PUF during hydrolysis by electrospray ionization (ESI) of the aqueous solutions. The results show that the extent of PUF curing and the presence of APS as the coupling agent have an important impact on its stability. XPS revealed that poorly cured PUF contains a high fraction of –NH–CH2–O–CH2–NH– bonds which are easily hydrolyzed, while longer curing results mostly in more stable methylene bridges, –NH–CH2–NH–. We also observed evidence for urea –NH–CO– bond decomposition by ESI analysis. Mineral wool fiber ageing studies showed that PUF rearranges on the fiber surface and detaches from it, together with the APS coupling agent. This improved understanding of the effects of ageing provides clues for designing a more robust binder, leading to increased quality and stability of mineral wool insulation.

KW - Coatings

KW - Fibers

KW - Material stability

KW - Mineral wool

KW - Resin

U2 - 10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2018.04.001

DO - 10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2018.04.001

M3 - Journal article

AN - SCOPUS:85045195889

VL - 152

SP - 86

EP - 94

JO - Polymer Degradation and Stability

JF - Polymer Degradation and Stability

SN - 0141-3910

ER -