Heterogeneous contributions of change in population distribution of body mass index to change in obesity and underweight

NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC), Maja Bæksgaard Jørgensen (Member of author group), Peter Bjerregaard (Member of author group), Kaare Christensen (Member of author group), Louise Eriksen (Member of author group), Anders Grøntved (Member of author group), Peter Lund Kristensen (Member of author group), Niels Christian Møller (Member of author group), Mette Rasmussen (Member of author group), Stine Schramm (Member of author group), Morten Sodemann (Member of author group), Janne Schurmann Tolstrup (Member of author group), Niels Wedderkopp (Member of author group)

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From 1985 to 2016, the prevalence of underweight decreased, and that of obesity and severe obesity increased, in most regions, with significant variation in the magnitude of these changes across regions. We investigated how much change in mean body mass index (BMI) explains changes in the prevalence of underweight, obesity, and severe obesity in different regions using data from 2896 population-based studies with 187 million participants. Changes in the prevalence of underweight and total obesity, and to a lesser extent severe obesity, are largely driven by shifts in the distribution of BMI, with smaller contributions from changes in the shape of the distribution. In East and Southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, the underweight tail of the BMI distribution was left behind as the distribution shifted. There is a need for policies that address all forms of malnutrition by making healthy foods accessible and affordable, while restricting unhealthy foods through fiscal and regulatory restrictions.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere60060
Number of pages35
Publication statusPublished - 9. Mar 2021


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