Heterogeneity in glycaemic control in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes: A latent class trajectory analysis of Danish nationwide data

Rasmus Wibaek*, Else H. Ibfelt, Gregers S. Andersen, Adam Hulman, Dana Dabelea, Marit E. Jørgensen, Jannet Svensson, Dorte Vistisen, Pernille Falberg Rønn

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Aims: Suboptimal glycaemic control in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes is prevalent and associated with increased risk of diabetes-related complications and mortality later in life. First, we aimed to identify distinct glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) trajectories in children and adolescents (2–19 years) with type 1 diabetes. Second, we examined their associations with clinical and socio-demographic factors. 

Methods: Data were obtained from the Danish Registry of Childhood and Adolescent Diabetes (DanDiabKids) comprising all Danish children and adolescents diagnosed with type 1 diabetes from 1996 to 2019. Subgroups of distinct mean trajectories of HbA1c were identified using data-driven latent class trajectory modelling. 

Results: A total of 5889 children (47% female) had HbA1c measured a median of 6 times (interquartile range 3–8) and contributing to 36,504 measurements. We identified four mean HbA1c trajectories, referred to as ‘Stable but elevated HbA1c’ (83%), ‘Increasing HbA1c’ (5%), ‘Late HbA1c peak’ (7%), and ‘Early HbA1c peak’ (5%). Compared to the ‘Stable but elevated HbA1c’ group, the three other groups presented rapidly deteriorating glycaemic control during late childhood or adolescence, had higher HbA1c at study entry, and included fewer pump users, higher frequency of inadequate blood glucose monitoring, more severe hypoglycaemic events, lower proportions with Danish origin, and worse educational status of parents. The groups also represented significant differences by healthcare region. 

Conclusions: Children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes experience heterogenous trajectories with different timings and magnitudes of the deterioration of HbA1c levels, although the majority follow on average a stable, yet elevated HbA1c trajectory. The causes and long-term health implications of these heterogenous trajectories need to be addressed.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere15275
JournalDiabetic Medicine
Volume41
Issue number3
Number of pages10
ISSN0742-3071
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2024

Keywords

  • child
  • cohort study
  • HbA1c
  • latent class trajectory modelling
  • life-course epidemiology
  • register study
  • type 1 diabetes

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