Heredity of interocular similarities in components of refraction

a population-based twin study among 66- to 79-year-old female twins

Olavi Pärssinen*, Markku Kauppinen, Ulrich Halekoh, Jaakko Kaprio, Taina Rantanen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Purpose: To examine genetic influences on interocular similarities in ocular refraction and components of refraction among elderly female twins. Methods: Refraction was assessed in 94 monozygotic (MZ) and 74 dizygotic (DZ) female twins aged 66–78 years. Absolute values of interocular differences (Aniso variables) in spherical refraction (SR), refractive astigmatism (AST), spherical equivalent (SE), corneal refractive power (CR), corneal astigmatism (CAST), anterior chamber depth (ACD) and axial length (AL) were calculated. The differences between sisters in each of the Aniso variables were calculated and graded into two categories, best differentiating the groups, here isometropic and anisometropic values. The cut-offs for grading as isometropic were AnisoSR < 0.75 D, AnisoAST < 0.5 D, AnisoSE < 1.0 D, AnisoCR < 0.5 D, AnisoCAST < 0.50 D, AnisoACD < 0.1 mm and AniosAL < 0.1 mm. Genetic influences on these traits were investigated by comparing the prevalence of isometropic and anisometropic differences between the MZ and DZ pairs in the Aniso variables and the interrelationships between the Aniso variables. Results: When the Aniso variables were treated as continuous, no significant differences were found between the MZ and DZ subjects. When the proportions of isometropic intratwinpair interocular differences in the Aniso variables in the MZ and DZ cotwins were compared, the prevalences (MZ/DZ) were AnisoSR: 68%/60%; AnisoAST: 66%/57%; AnisoSE: 87%/68%; AnisoCR: 83%/78%; AnisoCAST: 69%/35%; AnisoACD: 77%/63%; and AnisoAL: 76%/60%. The differences were statistically significant for Aniso SE (p = 0.035, Fisher's exact test) and CAST (p = 0.007). The greater homogeneity in the interocular differences between the MZ sisters supports the assumption that isometropia of different elements of refraction is genetically influenced and tending to continue up to older ages. In cases where AnisoSE was <1.0 D, higher CR in one eye was associated with shorter AL (r = -0.398, p < 0.001), thereby contributing to emmetropization, irrespective of zygosity. In the cases of AnisoSE =1 D, no similar influence on emmetropization was observed. The difference between sisters in AnisoSE was associated with the intratwinpair difference in Aniso AL, but not with the intratwinpair differences in AnisoCR, irrespective of zygosity. Conclusion: The higher prevalence of similarities in isometropia of the spherical equivalent and corneal astigmatism between the MZ pairs compared to DZ pairs is consistent with the view that genetic influences on the refractive elements of the eye, tending to isometropia, continue into older age. The interrelation between CR and AL tends to maintain isometropia of SE irrespective of zygosity.

Original languageEnglish
JournalActa Ophthalmologica
Volume97
Issue number6
Pages (from-to)603-607
ISSN1755-375X
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2019

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Twin Studies
Heredity
Population
Ocular Refraction
Dizygotic Twins
Siblings
Power (Psychology)

Keywords

  • ansiometropia
  • astigmatism
  • corneal refraction
  • emmetropia
  • isometropia
  • spherical equivalent

Cite this

Pärssinen, Olavi ; Kauppinen, Markku ; Halekoh, Ulrich ; Kaprio, Jaakko ; Rantanen, Taina. / Heredity of interocular similarities in components of refraction : a population-based twin study among 66- to 79-year-old female twins. In: Acta Ophthalmologica. 2019 ; Vol. 97, No. 6. pp. 603-607.
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title = "Heredity of interocular similarities in components of refraction: a population-based twin study among 66- to 79-year-old female twins",
abstract = "Purpose: To examine genetic influences on interocular similarities in ocular refraction and components of refraction among elderly female twins. Methods: Refraction was assessed in 94 monozygotic (MZ) and 74 dizygotic (DZ) female twins aged 66–78 years. Absolute values of interocular differences (Aniso variables) in spherical refraction (SR), refractive astigmatism (AST), spherical equivalent (SE), corneal refractive power (CR), corneal astigmatism (CAST), anterior chamber depth (ACD) and axial length (AL) were calculated. The differences between sisters in each of the Aniso variables were calculated and graded into two categories, best differentiating the groups, here isometropic and anisometropic values. The cut-offs for grading as isometropic were AnisoSR < 0.75 D, AnisoAST < 0.5 D, AnisoSE < 1.0 D, AnisoCR < 0.5 D, AnisoCAST < 0.50 D, AnisoACD < 0.1 mm and AniosAL < 0.1 mm. Genetic influences on these traits were investigated by comparing the prevalence of isometropic and anisometropic differences between the MZ and DZ pairs in the Aniso variables and the interrelationships between the Aniso variables. Results: When the Aniso variables were treated as continuous, no significant differences were found between the MZ and DZ subjects. When the proportions of isometropic intratwinpair interocular differences in the Aniso variables in the MZ and DZ cotwins were compared, the prevalences (MZ/DZ) were AnisoSR: 68{\%}/60{\%}; AnisoAST: 66{\%}/57{\%}; AnisoSE: 87{\%}/68{\%}; AnisoCR: 83{\%}/78{\%}; AnisoCAST: 69{\%}/35{\%}; AnisoACD: 77{\%}/63{\%}; and AnisoAL: 76{\%}/60{\%}. The differences were statistically significant for Aniso SE (p = 0.035, Fisher's exact test) and CAST (p = 0.007). The greater homogeneity in the interocular differences between the MZ sisters supports the assumption that isometropia of different elements of refraction is genetically influenced and tending to continue up to older ages. In cases where AnisoSE was <1.0 D, higher CR in one eye was associated with shorter AL (r = -0.398, p < 0.001), thereby contributing to emmetropization, irrespective of zygosity. In the cases of AnisoSE =1 D, no similar influence on emmetropization was observed. The difference between sisters in AnisoSE was associated with the intratwinpair difference in Aniso AL, but not with the intratwinpair differences in AnisoCR, irrespective of zygosity. Conclusion: The higher prevalence of similarities in isometropia of the spherical equivalent and corneal astigmatism between the MZ pairs compared to DZ pairs is consistent with the view that genetic influences on the refractive elements of the eye, tending to isometropia, continue into older age. The interrelation between CR and AL tends to maintain isometropia of SE irrespective of zygosity.",
keywords = "ansiometropia, astigmatism, corneal refraction, emmetropia, isometropia, spherical equivalent",
author = "Olavi P{\"a}rssinen and Markku Kauppinen and Ulrich Halekoh and Jaakko Kaprio and Taina Rantanen",
year = "2019",
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pages = "603--607",
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Heredity of interocular similarities in components of refraction : a population-based twin study among 66- to 79-year-old female twins. / Pärssinen, Olavi; Kauppinen, Markku; Halekoh, Ulrich; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rantanen, Taina.

In: Acta Ophthalmologica, Vol. 97, No. 6, 09.2019, p. 603-607.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Heredity of interocular similarities in components of refraction

T2 - a population-based twin study among 66- to 79-year-old female twins

AU - Pärssinen, Olavi

AU - Kauppinen, Markku

AU - Halekoh, Ulrich

AU - Kaprio, Jaakko

AU - Rantanen, Taina

PY - 2019/9

Y1 - 2019/9

N2 - Purpose: To examine genetic influences on interocular similarities in ocular refraction and components of refraction among elderly female twins. Methods: Refraction was assessed in 94 monozygotic (MZ) and 74 dizygotic (DZ) female twins aged 66–78 years. Absolute values of interocular differences (Aniso variables) in spherical refraction (SR), refractive astigmatism (AST), spherical equivalent (SE), corneal refractive power (CR), corneal astigmatism (CAST), anterior chamber depth (ACD) and axial length (AL) were calculated. The differences between sisters in each of the Aniso variables were calculated and graded into two categories, best differentiating the groups, here isometropic and anisometropic values. The cut-offs for grading as isometropic were AnisoSR < 0.75 D, AnisoAST < 0.5 D, AnisoSE < 1.0 D, AnisoCR < 0.5 D, AnisoCAST < 0.50 D, AnisoACD < 0.1 mm and AniosAL < 0.1 mm. Genetic influences on these traits were investigated by comparing the prevalence of isometropic and anisometropic differences between the MZ and DZ pairs in the Aniso variables and the interrelationships between the Aniso variables. Results: When the Aniso variables were treated as continuous, no significant differences were found between the MZ and DZ subjects. When the proportions of isometropic intratwinpair interocular differences in the Aniso variables in the MZ and DZ cotwins were compared, the prevalences (MZ/DZ) were AnisoSR: 68%/60%; AnisoAST: 66%/57%; AnisoSE: 87%/68%; AnisoCR: 83%/78%; AnisoCAST: 69%/35%; AnisoACD: 77%/63%; and AnisoAL: 76%/60%. The differences were statistically significant for Aniso SE (p = 0.035, Fisher's exact test) and CAST (p = 0.007). The greater homogeneity in the interocular differences between the MZ sisters supports the assumption that isometropia of different elements of refraction is genetically influenced and tending to continue up to older ages. In cases where AnisoSE was <1.0 D, higher CR in one eye was associated with shorter AL (r = -0.398, p < 0.001), thereby contributing to emmetropization, irrespective of zygosity. In the cases of AnisoSE =1 D, no similar influence on emmetropization was observed. The difference between sisters in AnisoSE was associated with the intratwinpair difference in Aniso AL, but not with the intratwinpair differences in AnisoCR, irrespective of zygosity. Conclusion: The higher prevalence of similarities in isometropia of the spherical equivalent and corneal astigmatism between the MZ pairs compared to DZ pairs is consistent with the view that genetic influences on the refractive elements of the eye, tending to isometropia, continue into older age. The interrelation between CR and AL tends to maintain isometropia of SE irrespective of zygosity.

AB - Purpose: To examine genetic influences on interocular similarities in ocular refraction and components of refraction among elderly female twins. Methods: Refraction was assessed in 94 monozygotic (MZ) and 74 dizygotic (DZ) female twins aged 66–78 years. Absolute values of interocular differences (Aniso variables) in spherical refraction (SR), refractive astigmatism (AST), spherical equivalent (SE), corneal refractive power (CR), corneal astigmatism (CAST), anterior chamber depth (ACD) and axial length (AL) were calculated. The differences between sisters in each of the Aniso variables were calculated and graded into two categories, best differentiating the groups, here isometropic and anisometropic values. The cut-offs for grading as isometropic were AnisoSR < 0.75 D, AnisoAST < 0.5 D, AnisoSE < 1.0 D, AnisoCR < 0.5 D, AnisoCAST < 0.50 D, AnisoACD < 0.1 mm and AniosAL < 0.1 mm. Genetic influences on these traits were investigated by comparing the prevalence of isometropic and anisometropic differences between the MZ and DZ pairs in the Aniso variables and the interrelationships between the Aniso variables. Results: When the Aniso variables were treated as continuous, no significant differences were found between the MZ and DZ subjects. When the proportions of isometropic intratwinpair interocular differences in the Aniso variables in the MZ and DZ cotwins were compared, the prevalences (MZ/DZ) were AnisoSR: 68%/60%; AnisoAST: 66%/57%; AnisoSE: 87%/68%; AnisoCR: 83%/78%; AnisoCAST: 69%/35%; AnisoACD: 77%/63%; and AnisoAL: 76%/60%. The differences were statistically significant for Aniso SE (p = 0.035, Fisher's exact test) and CAST (p = 0.007). The greater homogeneity in the interocular differences between the MZ sisters supports the assumption that isometropia of different elements of refraction is genetically influenced and tending to continue up to older ages. In cases where AnisoSE was <1.0 D, higher CR in one eye was associated with shorter AL (r = -0.398, p < 0.001), thereby contributing to emmetropization, irrespective of zygosity. In the cases of AnisoSE =1 D, no similar influence on emmetropization was observed. The difference between sisters in AnisoSE was associated with the intratwinpair difference in Aniso AL, but not with the intratwinpair differences in AnisoCR, irrespective of zygosity. Conclusion: The higher prevalence of similarities in isometropia of the spherical equivalent and corneal astigmatism between the MZ pairs compared to DZ pairs is consistent with the view that genetic influences on the refractive elements of the eye, tending to isometropia, continue into older age. The interrelation between CR and AL tends to maintain isometropia of SE irrespective of zygosity.

KW - ansiometropia

KW - astigmatism

KW - corneal refraction

KW - emmetropia

KW - isometropia

KW - spherical equivalent

U2 - 10.1111/aos.14033

DO - 10.1111/aos.14033

M3 - Journal article

VL - 97

SP - 603

EP - 607

JO - Acta Ophthalmologica

JF - Acta Ophthalmologica

SN - 1755-375X

IS - 6

ER -