Hemodynamic Determinants of Activity Measured by Accelerometer in Patients With Stable Heart Failure

Massar Omar*, Jesper Jensen, Peter H. Frederiksen, Lars Videbæk, Mikael Kjær Poulsen, Jan Christian Brønd, Finn Gustafsson, Barry A. Borlaug, Morten Schou, Jacob Eifer Møller

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


Objectives: This study examined the link between accelerometer recordings and cardiac pathophysiology measured with right heart cauterization at rest and with exercise in patients with HFrEF. Background: Patient-worn accelerometers are increasingly being used in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) to assess activity and serve as surrogate endpoints in heart failure trials. Methods: Physical average daily activity (PADA) and total average daily activity according to accelerometer units were assessed in 63 patients (mean age 58 ± 10 years; mean ejection fraction 26% ± 4%). Patients underwent hemodynamic exercise testing and accelerometry. Patients were divided according to PADA in PADALow and PADAHigh activity level groups based on median counts per minute of physical activity. Results: Patients in the PADALow group were older and more frequently treated with diuretics. At rest, the PADALow group was characterized by a lower cardiac index (2.2 ± 0.4 L/min/m2 vs 2.4 ± 0.4 L/min/m2; P = 0.01) and stroke volume (70 ± 19 mL vs 81 ± 17 mL; P = 0.02) but not pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (12 ± 5 mm Hg vs 11 ± 5 mm Hg; P = 0.3). The PADALow group reached a lower cardiac index (4.8 ± 1.7 L/min/m2 vs 6.6 ± 1.7 L/min/m2; P < 0.001) but not in pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (31 ± 12 mm Hg vs 27 ± 8 mm Hg; P = 0.2) at peak exercise. The attenuated increase was associated with an attenuated increase in stroke volume (94 ± 32 mL vs 121 ± 29 mL; P < 0.001) rather than a reduced increase in heart rate (42 ± 23 beats/min vs 52 ± 21 beats/min; P = 0.07). PADA and total average daily accelerometer units were associated with patient-reported functional impairment according to the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire but not with New York Heart Association functional class. Conclusions: Among stable ambulatory patients with HFrEF, lower daily activity is associated with poorer cardiac index reserve and reduced cardiac index during exercise. (Empagliflozin in Heart Failure Patients With Reduced Ejection Fraction; NCT03198585)

Original languageEnglish
JournalJ A C C: Heart Failure
Issue number11
Pages (from-to)824-835
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 American College of Cardiology Foundation


  • accelerometer
  • exercise testing
  • hemodynamics
  • HFrEF
  • patient-centric outcome
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Pulmonary Wedge Pressure
  • Stroke Volume
  • Heart Failure
  • Aged
  • Hemodynamics
  • Accelerometry


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