HAXPES: Inelastic background for characterization of nanostructured materials

Sven Tougaard*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


Analysis of the spectrum of inelastically scattered electrons in XPS has been used for decades to determine the structure of materials on the nanoscale. Using the higher photon energies available in HAXPES, the method was recently shown to determine structures rather accurately with a more than 100 nm probing depth. In this paper, these HAXPES applications are briefly reviewed. Only two parameters are required for the analysis, namely, the inelastic mean free path and the cross section for inelastic electron scattering. We also discuss in detail how these parameters are best selected.

Original languageEnglish
JournalSurface and Interface Analysis
Issue number5
Pages (from-to)259-266
Publication statusPublished - May 2024


  • inelastic background analysis
  • quantitative nanostructure analysis


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