This work compares various production routes for 2nd generation MP by reviewing the latest studies conducted in this context and introducing the state-of-the-art technologies, hoping that the findings can accelerate and facilitate upscaling of MP production. The results show that 2nd generation MP depends on the expansion of renewable energies. In countries with high penetration of renewable electricity, such as Nordic countries, off-peak surplus electricity can be used within MP-industry by supplying electrolytic H2, which is the driving factor for both MOB and HOB-based MP production. However, nutrient recovery technologies are the heart of the 2nd generation MP industry as they determine the process costs and quality of the final product. Although huge attempts have been made to date in this context, some bottlenecks such as immature nutrient recovery technologies, less efficient fermenters with insufficient gas-to-liquid transfer, and costly electrolytic hydrogen production and storage have hindered the scale up of MP production. Furthermore, further research into techno-economic feasibility and life cycle assessment (LCA) of coupled technologies is still needed to identify key points for improvement and thereby secure a sustainable production system.