Extracellular Vesicles Isolated from Plasma of Multiple Myeloma Patients Treated with Daratumumab Express CD38, PD-L1, and the Complement Inhibitory Proteins CD55 and CD59

Kieran Brennan, Katrine F. Iversen, Alfonso Blanco-Fernández, Thomas Lund, Torben Plesner, Margaret M. Mc Gee*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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Abstract

Daratumumab (DARA) has improved the outcome of treatment of multiple myeloma (MM). DARA acts via complement-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Resistance to DARA may result from upregulation of the complement inhibitory proteins CD55 and CD59, downregulation of the DARA target CD38 on myeloma cells or altered expression of the checkpoint inhibitor ligand programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) or other mechanisms. In this study, EVs were isolated from peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) from multiple myeloma (MM) patients treated with DARA and PB of healthy controls. EV size and number and the expression of CD38, CD55, CD59 and PD-L1 as well as the EV markers CD9, CD63, CD81, CD147 were determined by flow cytometry. Results reveal that all patient EV samples express CD38, PD-L1, CD55 and CD59. The level of CD55 and CD59 are elevated on MM PB EVs compared with healthy controls, and the level of PD-L1 on MM PB EVs is higher in patients responding to treatment with DARA. CD147, a marker of various aspects of malignant behaviour of cancer cells and a potential target for therapy, was significantly elevated on MM EVs compared with healthy controls. Furthermore, mass spectrometry data suggests that MM PB EVs bind DARA. This study reveals a MM PB and BM EV protein signature that may have diagnostic and prognostic value.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3365
JournalCells
Volume11
Issue number21
Number of pages19
ISSN2073-4409
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 25. Oct 2022

Keywords

  • B7-H1 Antigen
  • CD55 Antigens
  • CD59 Antigens
  • Complement System Proteins
  • Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism
  • Humans
  • Multiple Myeloma/pathology

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