Abstract

Background Coronary artery calcium is important in cardiovascular risk stratification, but this knowledge is based on studies with a significant selection bias. This study aims to evaluate the external validity of a screening programme including coronary artery calcium examination, and the association between coronary artery calcium and cardiovascular events. Design Multi-centre population based study. Methods Randomly selected middle-aged men and women ( N = 1751) free of cardiovascular disease were invited to the examination during 2009-2010. Participation rate in the examination was 70%. Participants ( n = 1227) and non-participants ( n = 524) were compared regarding: cardiovascular medical treatment, Charlson comorbidity index and socioeconomic status (evaluated by cohabitation, gross income and education). Study endpoints were cardiovascular events and mortality. Results Non-participants had a significant higher comorbidity ( p = 0.003) and a lower socioeconomic status ( p < 0.0001), while cardiovascular medical treatment was alike. Over a median follow-up time of 6.5 years the cardiovascular event and mortality rates were equal (6.7% vs. 6.4%, p = 0.80 and 0.4% vs. 0.5%, p = 0.76, respectively). Adjusted hazard ratio was 0.90 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63-1.37). Among participants, the extent of coronary artery calcium was significantly associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events (hazard ratio 1.92, 95% CI 1.03-3.54, hazard ratio 3.66, 95% CI 1.82-7.32, hazard ratio 6.51, 95% CI 3.17-13.36 for coronary artery calcium scores 1-99, 100-399, ≥400 AU, respectively). Conclusions Non-participants had a higher comorbidity index and a lower socioeconomic status, but the cardiovascular event and mortality rates were equal to those of participants. Thus, a screening programme including a coronary artery calcium examination had a high external validity regarding cardiovascular risk, but also a significant social imbalance.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Journal of Preventive Cardiology
Volume25
Issue number11
Pages (from-to)1156-1166
ISSN2047-4873
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2018

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Confidence Intervals
Population
Comorbidity
Selection Bias
Education

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@article{042730998e1149b6b249faeacbcf20d5,
title = "External validity of a cardiovascular screening including a coronary artery calcium examination in middle-aged individuals from the general population",
abstract = "Background Coronary artery calcium is important in cardiovascular risk stratification, but this knowledge is based on studies with a significant selection bias. This study aims to evaluate the external validity of a screening programme including coronary artery calcium examination, and the association between coronary artery calcium and cardiovascular events. Design Multi-centre population based study. Methods Randomly selected middle-aged men and women ( N = 1751) free of cardiovascular disease were invited to the examination during 2009-2010. Participation rate in the examination was 70{\%}. Participants ( n = 1227) and non-participants ( n = 524) were compared regarding: cardiovascular medical treatment, Charlson comorbidity index and socioeconomic status (evaluated by cohabitation, gross income and education). Study endpoints were cardiovascular events and mortality. Results Non-participants had a significant higher comorbidity ( p = 0.003) and a lower socioeconomic status ( p < 0.0001), while cardiovascular medical treatment was alike. Over a median follow-up time of 6.5 years the cardiovascular event and mortality rates were equal (6.7{\%} vs. 6.4{\%}, p = 0.80 and 0.4{\%} vs. 0.5{\%}, p = 0.76, respectively). Adjusted hazard ratio was 0.90 (95{\%} confidence interval (CI) 0.63-1.37). Among participants, the extent of coronary artery calcium was significantly associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events (hazard ratio 1.92, 95{\%} CI 1.03-3.54, hazard ratio 3.66, 95{\%} CI 1.82-7.32, hazard ratio 6.51, 95{\%} CI 3.17-13.36 for coronary artery calcium scores 1-99, 100-399, ≥400 AU, respectively). Conclusions Non-participants had a higher comorbidity index and a lower socioeconomic status, but the cardiovascular event and mortality rates were equal to those of participants. Thus, a screening programme including a coronary artery calcium examination had a high external validity regarding cardiovascular risk, but also a significant social imbalance.",
author = "Gr{\o}nh{\o}j, {Mette H} and Oke Gerke and Hans Mickley and Steffensen, {Flemming H} and Jess Lambrechtsen and Sand, {Niels Peter R} and Rasmussen, {Lars M} and Olsen, {Michael H} and Jesper Hallas and Diederichsen, {Axel Cp}",
year = "2018",
month = "7",
doi = "10.1177/2047487318774850",
language = "English",
volume = "25",
pages = "1156--1166",
journal = "European Journal of Preventive Cardiology",
issn = "2047-4873",
publisher = "SAGE Publications",
number = "11",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - External validity of a cardiovascular screening including a coronary artery calcium examination in middle-aged individuals from the general population

AU - Grønhøj, Mette H

AU - Gerke, Oke

AU - Mickley, Hans

AU - Steffensen, Flemming H

AU - Lambrechtsen, Jess

AU - Sand, Niels Peter R

AU - Rasmussen, Lars M

AU - Olsen, Michael H

AU - Hallas, Jesper

AU - Diederichsen, Axel Cp

PY - 2018/7

Y1 - 2018/7

N2 - Background Coronary artery calcium is important in cardiovascular risk stratification, but this knowledge is based on studies with a significant selection bias. This study aims to evaluate the external validity of a screening programme including coronary artery calcium examination, and the association between coronary artery calcium and cardiovascular events. Design Multi-centre population based study. Methods Randomly selected middle-aged men and women ( N = 1751) free of cardiovascular disease were invited to the examination during 2009-2010. Participation rate in the examination was 70%. Participants ( n = 1227) and non-participants ( n = 524) were compared regarding: cardiovascular medical treatment, Charlson comorbidity index and socioeconomic status (evaluated by cohabitation, gross income and education). Study endpoints were cardiovascular events and mortality. Results Non-participants had a significant higher comorbidity ( p = 0.003) and a lower socioeconomic status ( p < 0.0001), while cardiovascular medical treatment was alike. Over a median follow-up time of 6.5 years the cardiovascular event and mortality rates were equal (6.7% vs. 6.4%, p = 0.80 and 0.4% vs. 0.5%, p = 0.76, respectively). Adjusted hazard ratio was 0.90 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63-1.37). Among participants, the extent of coronary artery calcium was significantly associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events (hazard ratio 1.92, 95% CI 1.03-3.54, hazard ratio 3.66, 95% CI 1.82-7.32, hazard ratio 6.51, 95% CI 3.17-13.36 for coronary artery calcium scores 1-99, 100-399, ≥400 AU, respectively). Conclusions Non-participants had a higher comorbidity index and a lower socioeconomic status, but the cardiovascular event and mortality rates were equal to those of participants. Thus, a screening programme including a coronary artery calcium examination had a high external validity regarding cardiovascular risk, but also a significant social imbalance.

AB - Background Coronary artery calcium is important in cardiovascular risk stratification, but this knowledge is based on studies with a significant selection bias. This study aims to evaluate the external validity of a screening programme including coronary artery calcium examination, and the association between coronary artery calcium and cardiovascular events. Design Multi-centre population based study. Methods Randomly selected middle-aged men and women ( N = 1751) free of cardiovascular disease were invited to the examination during 2009-2010. Participation rate in the examination was 70%. Participants ( n = 1227) and non-participants ( n = 524) were compared regarding: cardiovascular medical treatment, Charlson comorbidity index and socioeconomic status (evaluated by cohabitation, gross income and education). Study endpoints were cardiovascular events and mortality. Results Non-participants had a significant higher comorbidity ( p = 0.003) and a lower socioeconomic status ( p < 0.0001), while cardiovascular medical treatment was alike. Over a median follow-up time of 6.5 years the cardiovascular event and mortality rates were equal (6.7% vs. 6.4%, p = 0.80 and 0.4% vs. 0.5%, p = 0.76, respectively). Adjusted hazard ratio was 0.90 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63-1.37). Among participants, the extent of coronary artery calcium was significantly associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events (hazard ratio 1.92, 95% CI 1.03-3.54, hazard ratio 3.66, 95% CI 1.82-7.32, hazard ratio 6.51, 95% CI 3.17-13.36 for coronary artery calcium scores 1-99, 100-399, ≥400 AU, respectively). Conclusions Non-participants had a higher comorbidity index and a lower socioeconomic status, but the cardiovascular event and mortality rates were equal to those of participants. Thus, a screening programme including a coronary artery calcium examination had a high external validity regarding cardiovascular risk, but also a significant social imbalance.

U2 - 10.1177/2047487318774850

DO - 10.1177/2047487318774850

M3 - Journal article

C2 - 29719966

VL - 25

SP - 1156

EP - 1166

JO - European Journal of Preventive Cardiology

JF - European Journal of Preventive Cardiology

SN - 2047-4873

IS - 11

ER -