Exposure to the danish mandatory vitamin D fortification policy in prenatal life and the risk of developing coeliac disease—the importance of season: A semi ecological study

Caroline Moos*, Katrine S. Duus, Peder Frederiksen, Berit L. Heitmann, Vibeke Andersen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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Abstract

Few studies have examined the role of maternal diet in relation to development of coeliac disease (CD). In Denmark, cancellation of mandatory vitamin D fortification of margarine in June 1985 provided this opportunity. This study examined if season of birth or prenatal exposure to extra vitamin D from food fortification were associated with developing CD later in life. A strength of this study is the distinctly longer follow-up of patients (30 years). This register-based study has a semi-ecological design. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios and to calculate 95% confidence intervals. The odds ratio for developing CD was 0.81 (95% CI 0.66; 1.00 p = 0.054), comparing those with fetal exposure to mandatory vitamin D fortification policy of margarine to those without after adjusting for gender and season of birth. There was a statistically significant season effect particularly for children born in autumn (OR 1.6 95% CI 1.16; 2.21) and born in summer (OR 1.5 95% CI 1.1; 2.1) when compared to children born in winter. Although this study did not find evidence to support the premise that prenatal exposure to small extra amounts of vitamin D from a mandatory food fortification policy lowered risk of developing CD, the small number of CD cases and observed association between season of birth and CD suggest that environmental exposure ought to be further explored.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1243
JournalNutrients
Volume12
Issue number5
Number of pages11
ISSN2072-6643
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2020

Keywords

  • Coeliac disease
  • D-tect
  • Ecological study
  • Fetal programming
  • Fortification
  • Prenatal exposure
  • Public health epidemiology
  • Season of birth
  • Social experiment
  • Vitamin D

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