Early prediction of kidney graft function may assist clinical management, and for this, reliable non-invasive biomarkers are needed. We evaluated endotrophin (ETP), a novel non-invasive biomarker of collagen type VI formation, as a prognostic marker in kidney transplant recipients. ETP levels were measured with the PRO-C6 ELISA in the plasma (P-ETP) of 218 and urine (U-ETP/Cr) of 172 kidney transplant recipients, one (D1) and five (D5) days, as well as three (M3) and twelve (M12) months, after transplantation. P-ETP and U-ETP/Cr at D1 (P-ETP AUC = 0.86, p < 0.0001; U-ETP/Cr AUC = 0.70, p = 0.0002) were independent markers of delayed graft function (DGF) and P-ETP at D1 had an odds ratio of 6.3 (p < 0.0001) for DGF when adjusted for plasma creatinine. The results for P-ETP at D1 were confirmed in a validation cohort of 146 transplant recipients (AUC = 0.92, p < 0.0001). U-ETP/Cr at M3 was negatively associated with kidney graft function at M12 (p = 0.007). This study suggests that ETP at D1 can identify patients at risk of delayed graft function and that U-ETP/Cr at M3 can predict the future status of the allograft. Thus, measuring collagen type VI formation could aid in predicting graft function in kidney transplant recipients.