Empagliflozin to elderly and obese patients with increased risk of developing heart failure: Study protocol for the Empire Prevent trial program

Camilla Fuchs Andersen*, Julie Hempel Larsen, Jesper Jensen, Massar Omar, Nina Nouhravesh, Caroline Kistorp, Christian Tuxen, Finn Gustafsson, Filip K. Knop, Julie Lyng Forman, Filip Soeskov Davidovski, Lars Thorbjørn Jensen, Kurt Højlund, Lars Køber, Lisbeth Antonsen, Mikael Kjær Poulsen, Morten Schou, Jacob Eifer Møller

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

Introduction: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have previously demonstrated cardioprotective properties in patients with type 2 diabetes, suggesting a preventive effect on heart failure (HF). The Empire Prevent trial program investigates the therapeutic potential for HF prevention by evaluating the cardiac, metabolic, and renal effects of the SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin in patients with increased risk of developing HF, but without diabetes or established HF. Methods: The Empire Prevent trial program is an investigator-initiated, double-blind, randomized clinical trial program including elderly and obese patients (60-84 years, body mass index >28 kg/m2) with at least one manifestation of hypertension, cardiovascular or chronic kidney disease, but no history of diabetes or HF. The aims are to investigate the effects of empagliflozin on 1) physical capacity and left ventricular and atrial structural changes with peak oxygen consumption and left ventricular mass as primary endpoints (Empire Prevent Cardiac), and 2) cardiac-adipose tissue interaction and volume homeostasis with primary endpoints of changes in epicardial adipose tissue and estimated extracellular volume (Empire Prevent Metabolic). At present, 138 of 204 patients have been randomized in the Empire Prevent trial program. Patients are randomized 1:1 to 180 days treatment with empagliflozin 10 mg daily or placebo, while undergoing a comprehensive examination program at baseline and follow-up. Discussion: The Empire Prevent trial program will mark the first step towards elucidating the potential of SGLT2 inhibition for HF prevention in an outpatient setting in elderly and obese patients with increased risk of developing HF, but with no history of diabetes or established HF. Furthermore, the Empire Prevent trial program will supplement the larger event-driven trials by providing mechanistic insights to the beneficial effects of SGLT2 inhibition. Trial Registration: Both parts of the trial program have been registered on September 13th 2021 (Clinical Trial Registration numbers: NCT05084235 and NCT05042973) before enrollment of the first patient. All patients will provide oral and written informed consent. The trial is approved by The Regional Committee on Health Research Ethics and the Danish Medicines Agency. Data will be disseminated through scientific meetings and peer-reviewed journals irrespective of outcome.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAmerican Heart Journal
Volume271
Pages (from-to)84-96
ISSN0002-8703
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2024

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