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Introduction Coronary artery calcification (CAC) and especially progression in CAC is a strong predictor of acute myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality. Supplementation with vitamin K2 and D3 has been suggested to have a protective role in the progression of CAC. In this study, we will examine the effect of vitamins K2 and D3 in men and women with severe CAC. We hypothesise that supplementation with vitamins K2 and D3 will slow down the calcification process. Method and analysis In this multicentre and double-blinded placebo-controlled study, 400 men and women with CAC score≥400 are randomised (1:1) to treatment with vitamin K2 (720 μg/day) and vitamin D3 (25 μg/day) or placebo treatment (no active treatment) for 2 years. Among exclusion criteria are treatment with vitamin K antagonist, coagulation disorders and prior coronary artery disease. To evaluate progression in coronary plaque, a cardiac CT-scan is performed at baseline and repeated after 12 and 24 months of follow-up. Primary outcome is progression in CAC score from baseline to follow-up at 2 years. Among secondary outcomes are coronary plaque composition and cardiac events. Intention-to-treat principle is used for all analyses. Ethics and dissemination There are so far no reported adverse effects associated with the use of vitamin K2. The protocol was approved by the Regional Scientific Ethical Committee for Southern Denmark and the Data Protection Agency. It will be conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. Positive as well as negative findings will be reported. Trial registration number NCT05500443.

Original languageEnglish
Article number073233
JournalBMJ Open
Issue number7
Number of pages6
Publication statusPublished - 14. Jul 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2023. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.


  • Cardiovascular imaging
  • Clinical Trial
  • Ischaemic heart disease


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