Background: Extent and progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC) are strong predictors of myocardial infarction and mortality. Objectives: This study aims to investigate if vitamin K2 and D supplementation can reduce CAC progression. Methods: A total of 389 participants were randomized to supplementation with vitamin K2 (720 μg/day) and D (25 μg/day) vs placebo in a multicenter double-blinded randomized controlled trial. The primary endpoint (progression of aortic valve calcification) has been reported. This study reports CAC progression in participants with no ischemic heart disease. CT scans were performed at baseline, 12, and 24 months. ΔCAC and coronary plaque volume were evaluated in the entire group and in 2 subgroups. A safety endpoint was the composite of myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, and all-cause mortality. Results: In total, 304 participants (male, mean age 71 years) were identified. The intervention and placebo group both increased in mean CAC scores from baseline to 24-month follow-up (Δ203 vs Δ254 AU, P = 0.089). In patients with CAC scores ≥400 AU, CAC progression was lower by intervention (Δ288 vs Δ380 AU, P = 0.047). Plaque analyses showed no significant difference in progression of noncalcified plaque volume (Δ-6 vs Δ46 mm3, P = 0.172). Safety events were fewer in participants receiving supplementation (1.9% vs 6.7%, P = 0.048). Conclusions: Patients with no prior ischemic heart disease randomized to vitamin K2 and D supplementation had no significant reduction in mean CAC progression over a 2-year follow-up compared to placebo. Although the primary endpoint is neutral, differential responses to supplementation in those with CAC scores ≥400 AU and in safety endpoints are hypothesis-generating for future studies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100643
JournalJACC: Advances
Issue number9
Number of pages12
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2023


  • CAC score
  • cardiac CT scan
  • coronary artery disease
  • vitamin D
  • vitamin K2


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