Kidney transplantation is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Endothelial dysfunction and vascular inflammation contribute to negative outcome. In experimental models, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists improved endothelial function and reduced inflammation. The present study tested the hypothesis that the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spironolactone improves endothelial function and reduces vascular inflammation in renal transplant patients. Eighty prevalent renal transplant patients from an ongoing, double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial were included. Paired plasma samples before and after 1 yr of treatment ( n = 39 in the spironolactone-treated group and 41 in the placebo-treated group) were used to determine markers of endothelial dysfunction (nitrite, nitrate, cGMP, arginine, citrulline, ornithine, asymmetric dimethylarginine, symmetric dimethylarginine, N G-monomethyl-l-arginine, von Willebrand factor, tissue-type plasminogen activator antigen, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 antigen) and markers of inflammation (intercellular adhesion molecule, vascular adhesion molecule, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and serum amyloid protein A). The median time since the transplantation was 4.6 (0.12-22.3) yr in the spironolactone-treated group and 2.1 (0.17-13.9) yr in the placebo-treated group ( P > 0.05). Spironolactone increased plasma aldosterone ( P < 0.001) and K + ( P < 0.001). Blood pressure did not change significantly. No significant differences were detected between groups in any of the measured markers of endothelial dysfunction or inflammation except in the subgroup analysis of patients with diabetes, where spironolactone decreased nitrite compared with placebo. In this study, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism did not improve biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction or vascular inflammation in prevalent renal transplant patients. Further studies are needed to evaluate the potential beneficial effect of early or late mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism on vascular outcomes in renal transplant patients.