Education in Twins and Their Parents Across Birth Cohorts Over 100 years

An Individual-Level Pooled Analysis of 42-Twin Cohorts

Karri Silventoinen, Aline Jelenkovic, Antti Latvala, Reijo Sund, Yoshie Yokoyama, Vilhelmina Ullemar, Catarina Almqvist, Catherine A Derom, Robert F Vlietinck, Ruth J F Loos, Christian Kandler, Chika Honda, Fujio Inui, Yoshinori Iwatani, Mikio Watanabe, Esther Rebato, Maria A Stazi, Corrado Fagnani, Sonia Brescianini, Yoon-Mi Hur & 81 others Hoe-Uk Jeong, Tessa L Cutler, John L Hopper, Andreas Busjahn, Kimberly J Saudino, Fuling Ji, Feng Ning, Zengchang Pang, Richard J Rose, Markku Koskenvuo, Kauko Heikkilä, Wendy Cozen, Amie E Hwang, Thomas M Mack, Sisira H Siribaddana, Matthew Hotopf, Athula Sumathipala, Fruhling Rijsdijk, Joohon Sung, Jina Kim, Jooyeon Lee, Sooji Lee, Tracy L Nelson, Keith E Whitfield, Qihua Tan, Dongfeng Zhang, Clare H Llewellyn, Abigail Fisher, S Alexandra Burt, Kelly L Klump, Ariel Knafo-Noam, David Mankuta, Lior Abramson, Sarah E Medland, Nicholas G Martin, Grant W Montgomery, Patrik K E Magnusson, Nancy L Pedersen, Anna K Dahl Aslan, Robin P Corley, Brooke M Huibregtse, Sevgi Y Öncel, Fazil Aliev, Robert F Krueger, Matt McGue, Shandell Pahlen, Gonneke Willemsen, Meike Bartels, Catharina E M van Beijsterveldt, Judy L Silberg, Lindon J Eaves, Hermine H Maes, Jennifer R Harris, Ingunn Brandt, Thomas S Nilsen, Finn Rasmussen, Per Tynelius, Laura A Baker, Catherine Tuvblad, Juan R Ordoñana, Juan F Sánchez-Romera, Lucia Colodro-Conde, Margaret Gatz, David A Butler, Paul Lichtenstein, Jack H Goldberg, K Paige Harden, Elliot M Tucker-Drob, Glen E Duncan, Dedra Buchwald, Adam D Tarnoki, David L Tarnoki, Carol E Franz, William S Kremen, Michael J Lyons, José A Maia, Duarte L Freitas, Eric Turkheimer, Thorkild I A Sørensen, Dorret I Boomsma, Jaakko Kaprio

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Abstract

Whether monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins differ from each other in a variety of phenotypes is important for genetic twin modeling and for inferences made from twin studies in general. We analyzed whether there were differences in individual, maternal and paternal education between MZ and DZ twins in a large pooled dataset. Information was gathered on individual education for 218,362 adult twins from 27 twin cohorts (53% females; 39% MZ twins), and on maternal and paternal education for 147,315 and 143,056 twins respectively, from 28 twin cohorts (52% females; 38% MZ twins). Together, we had information on individual or parental education from 42 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. The original education classifications were transformed to education years and analyzed using linear regression models. Overall, MZ males had 0.26 (95% CI [0.21, 0.31]) years and MZ females 0.17 (95% CI [0.12, 0.21]) years longer education than DZ twins. The zygosity difference became smaller in more recent birth cohorts for both males and females. Parental education was somewhat longer for fathers of DZ twins in cohorts born in 1990-1999 (0.16 years, 95% CI [0.08, 0.25]) and 2000 or later (0.11 years, 95% CI [0.00, 0.22]), compared with fathers of MZ twins. The results show that the years of both individual and parental education are largely similar in MZ and DZ twins. We suggest that the socio-economic differences between MZ and DZ twins are so small that inferences based upon genetic modeling of twin data are not affected.

Original languageEnglish
JournalTwin Research and Human Genetics
Volume20
Issue number5
Pages (from-to)395-405
ISSN1832-4274
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017

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Monozygotic Twins
Dizygotic Twins
Parents
Education
Fathers
Linear Models
Mothers
Twin Studies
Individuality

Keywords

  • Journal Article

Cite this

Silventoinen, Karri ; Jelenkovic, Aline ; Latvala, Antti ; Sund, Reijo ; Yokoyama, Yoshie ; Ullemar, Vilhelmina ; Almqvist, Catarina ; Derom, Catherine A ; Vlietinck, Robert F ; Loos, Ruth J F ; Kandler, Christian ; Honda, Chika ; Inui, Fujio ; Iwatani, Yoshinori ; Watanabe, Mikio ; Rebato, Esther ; Stazi, Maria A ; Fagnani, Corrado ; Brescianini, Sonia ; Hur, Yoon-Mi ; Jeong, Hoe-Uk ; Cutler, Tessa L ; Hopper, John L ; Busjahn, Andreas ; Saudino, Kimberly J ; Ji, Fuling ; Ning, Feng ; Pang, Zengchang ; Rose, Richard J ; Koskenvuo, Markku ; Heikkilä, Kauko ; Cozen, Wendy ; Hwang, Amie E ; Mack, Thomas M ; Siribaddana, Sisira H ; Hotopf, Matthew ; Sumathipala, Athula ; Rijsdijk, Fruhling ; Sung, Joohon ; Kim, Jina ; Lee, Jooyeon ; Lee, Sooji ; Nelson, Tracy L ; Whitfield, Keith E ; Tan, Qihua ; Zhang, Dongfeng ; Llewellyn, Clare H ; Fisher, Abigail ; Burt, S Alexandra ; Klump, Kelly L ; Knafo-Noam, Ariel ; Mankuta, David ; Abramson, Lior ; Medland, Sarah E ; Martin, Nicholas G ; Montgomery, Grant W ; Magnusson, Patrik K E ; Pedersen, Nancy L ; Dahl Aslan, Anna K ; Corley, Robin P ; Huibregtse, Brooke M ; Öncel, Sevgi Y ; Aliev, Fazil ; Krueger, Robert F ; McGue, Matt ; Pahlen, Shandell ; Willemsen, Gonneke ; Bartels, Meike ; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M ; Silberg, Judy L ; Eaves, Lindon J ; Maes, Hermine H ; Harris, Jennifer R ; Brandt, Ingunn ; Nilsen, Thomas S ; Rasmussen, Finn ; Tynelius, Per ; Baker, Laura A ; Tuvblad, Catherine ; Ordoñana, Juan R ; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F ; Colodro-Conde, Lucia ; Gatz, Margaret ; Butler, David A ; Lichtenstein, Paul ; Goldberg, Jack H ; Harden, K Paige ; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M ; Duncan, Glen E ; Buchwald, Dedra ; Tarnoki, Adam D ; Tarnoki, David L ; Franz, Carol E ; Kremen, William S ; Lyons, Michael J ; Maia, José A ; Freitas, Duarte L ; Turkheimer, Eric ; Sørensen, Thorkild I A ; Boomsma, Dorret I ; Kaprio, Jaakko. / Education in Twins and Their Parents Across Birth Cohorts Over 100 years : An Individual-Level Pooled Analysis of 42-Twin Cohorts. In: Twin Research and Human Genetics. 2017 ; Vol. 20, No. 5. pp. 395-405.
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title = "Education in Twins and Their Parents Across Birth Cohorts Over 100 years: An Individual-Level Pooled Analysis of 42-Twin Cohorts",
abstract = "Whether monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins differ from each other in a variety of phenotypes is important for genetic twin modeling and for inferences made from twin studies in general. We analyzed whether there were differences in individual, maternal and paternal education between MZ and DZ twins in a large pooled dataset. Information was gathered on individual education for 218,362 adult twins from 27 twin cohorts (53{\%} females; 39{\%} MZ twins), and on maternal and paternal education for 147,315 and 143,056 twins respectively, from 28 twin cohorts (52{\%} females; 38{\%} MZ twins). Together, we had information on individual or parental education from 42 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. The original education classifications were transformed to education years and analyzed using linear regression models. Overall, MZ males had 0.26 (95{\%} CI [0.21, 0.31]) years and MZ females 0.17 (95{\%} CI [0.12, 0.21]) years longer education than DZ twins. The zygosity difference became smaller in more recent birth cohorts for both males and females. Parental education was somewhat longer for fathers of DZ twins in cohorts born in 1990-1999 (0.16 years, 95{\%} CI [0.08, 0.25]) and 2000 or later (0.11 years, 95{\%} CI [0.00, 0.22]), compared with fathers of MZ twins. The results show that the years of both individual and parental education are largely similar in MZ and DZ twins. We suggest that the socio-economic differences between MZ and DZ twins are so small that inferences based upon genetic modeling of twin data are not affected.",
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author = "Karri Silventoinen and Aline Jelenkovic and Antti Latvala and Reijo Sund and Yoshie Yokoyama and Vilhelmina Ullemar and Catarina Almqvist and Derom, {Catherine A} and Vlietinck, {Robert F} and Loos, {Ruth J F} and Christian Kandler and Chika Honda and Fujio Inui and Yoshinori Iwatani and Mikio Watanabe and Esther Rebato and Stazi, {Maria A} and Corrado Fagnani and Sonia Brescianini and Yoon-Mi Hur and Hoe-Uk Jeong and Cutler, {Tessa L} and Hopper, {John L} and Andreas Busjahn and Saudino, {Kimberly J} and Fuling Ji and Feng Ning and Zengchang Pang and Rose, {Richard J} and Markku Koskenvuo and Kauko Heikkil{\"a} and Wendy Cozen and Hwang, {Amie E} and Mack, {Thomas M} and Siribaddana, {Sisira H} and Matthew Hotopf and Athula Sumathipala and Fruhling Rijsdijk and Joohon Sung and Jina Kim and Jooyeon Lee and Sooji Lee and Nelson, {Tracy L} and Whitfield, {Keith E} and Qihua Tan and Dongfeng Zhang and Llewellyn, {Clare H} and Abigail Fisher and Burt, {S Alexandra} and Klump, {Kelly L} and Ariel Knafo-Noam and David Mankuta and Lior Abramson and Medland, {Sarah E} and Martin, {Nicholas G} and Montgomery, {Grant W} and Magnusson, {Patrik K E} and Pedersen, {Nancy L} and {Dahl Aslan}, {Anna K} and Corley, {Robin P} and Huibregtse, {Brooke M} and {\"O}ncel, {Sevgi Y} and Fazil Aliev and Krueger, {Robert F} and Matt McGue and Shandell Pahlen and Gonneke Willemsen and Meike Bartels and {van Beijsterveldt}, {Catharina E M} and Silberg, {Judy L} and Eaves, {Lindon J} and Maes, {Hermine H} and Harris, {Jennifer R} and Ingunn Brandt and Nilsen, {Thomas S} and Finn Rasmussen and Per Tynelius and Baker, {Laura A} and Catherine Tuvblad and Ordo{\~n}ana, {Juan R} and S{\'a}nchez-Romera, {Juan F} and Lucia Colodro-Conde and Margaret Gatz and Butler, {David A} and Paul Lichtenstein and Goldberg, {Jack H} and Harden, {K Paige} and Tucker-Drob, {Elliot M} and Duncan, {Glen E} and Dedra Buchwald and Tarnoki, {Adam D} and Tarnoki, {David L} and Franz, {Carol E} and Kremen, {William S} and Lyons, {Michael J} and Maia, {Jos{\'e} A} and Freitas, {Duarte L} and Eric Turkheimer and S{\o}rensen, {Thorkild I A} and Boomsma, {Dorret I} and Jaakko Kaprio",
year = "2017",
doi = "10.1017/thg.2017.49",
language = "English",
volume = "20",
pages = "395--405",
journal = "Twin Research and Human Genetics",
issn = "1832-4274",
publisher = "Heinemann",
number = "5",

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Silventoinen, K, Jelenkovic, A, Latvala, A, Sund, R, Yokoyama, Y, Ullemar, V, Almqvist, C, Derom, CA, Vlietinck, RF, Loos, RJF, Kandler, C, Honda, C, Inui, F, Iwatani, Y, Watanabe, M, Rebato, E, Stazi, MA, Fagnani, C, Brescianini, S, Hur, Y-M, Jeong, H-U, Cutler, TL, Hopper, JL, Busjahn, A, Saudino, KJ, Ji, F, Ning, F, Pang, Z, Rose, RJ, Koskenvuo, M, Heikkilä, K, Cozen, W, Hwang, AE, Mack, TM, Siribaddana, SH, Hotopf, M, Sumathipala, A, Rijsdijk, F, Sung, J, Kim, J, Lee, J, Lee, S, Nelson, TL, Whitfield, KE, Tan, Q, Zhang, D, Llewellyn, CH, Fisher, A, Burt, SA, Klump, KL, Knafo-Noam, A, Mankuta, D, Abramson, L, Medland, SE, Martin, NG, Montgomery, GW, Magnusson, PKE, Pedersen, NL, Dahl Aslan, AK, Corley, RP, Huibregtse, BM, Öncel, SY, Aliev, F, Krueger, RF, McGue, M, Pahlen, S, Willemsen, G, Bartels, M, van Beijsterveldt, CEM, Silberg, JL, Eaves, LJ, Maes, HH, Harris, JR, Brandt, I, Nilsen, TS, Rasmussen, F, Tynelius, P, Baker, LA, Tuvblad, C, Ordoñana, JR, Sánchez-Romera, JF, Colodro-Conde, L, Gatz, M, Butler, DA, Lichtenstein, P, Goldberg, JH, Harden, KP, Tucker-Drob, EM, Duncan, GE, Buchwald, D, Tarnoki, AD, Tarnoki, DL, Franz, CE, Kremen, WS, Lyons, MJ, Maia, JA, Freitas, DL, Turkheimer, E, Sørensen, TIA, Boomsma, DI & Kaprio, J 2017, 'Education in Twins and Their Parents Across Birth Cohorts Over 100 years: An Individual-Level Pooled Analysis of 42-Twin Cohorts', Twin Research and Human Genetics, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 395-405. https://doi.org/10.1017/thg.2017.49

Education in Twins and Their Parents Across Birth Cohorts Over 100 years : An Individual-Level Pooled Analysis of 42-Twin Cohorts. / Silventoinen, Karri; Jelenkovic, Aline; Latvala, Antti; Sund, Reijo; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Ullemar, Vilhelmina; Almqvist, Catarina; Derom, Catherine A; Vlietinck, Robert F; Loos, Ruth J F; Kandler, Christian; Honda, Chika; Inui, Fujio; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Mikio; Rebato, Esther; Stazi, Maria A; Fagnani, Corrado; Brescianini, Sonia; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Jeong, Hoe-Uk; Cutler, Tessa L; Hopper, John L; Busjahn, Andreas; Saudino, Kimberly J; Ji, Fuling; Ning, Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Rose, Richard J; Koskenvuo, Markku; Heikkilä, Kauko; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E; Mack, Thomas M; Siribaddana, Sisira H; Hotopf, Matthew; Sumathipala, Athula; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Sung, Joohon; Kim, Jina; Lee, Jooyeon; Lee, Sooji; Nelson, Tracy L; Whitfield, Keith E; Tan, Qihua; Zhang, Dongfeng; Llewellyn, Clare H; Fisher, Abigail; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Medland, Sarah E; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Dahl Aslan, Anna K; Corley, Robin P; Huibregtse, Brooke M; Öncel, Sevgi Y; Aliev, Fazil; Krueger, Robert F; McGue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Willemsen, Gonneke; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Silberg, Judy L; Eaves, Lindon J; Maes, Hermine H; Harris, Jennifer R; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas S; Rasmussen, Finn; Tynelius, Per; Baker, Laura A; Tuvblad, Catherine; Ordoñana, Juan R; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Gatz, Margaret; Butler, David A; Lichtenstein, Paul; Goldberg, Jack H; Harden, K Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Duncan, Glen E; Buchwald, Dedra; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Franz, Carol E; Kremen, William S; Lyons, Michael J; Maia, José A; Freitas, Duarte L; Turkheimer, Eric; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kaprio, Jaakko.

In: Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 20, No. 5, 2017, p. 395-405.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Education in Twins and Their Parents Across Birth Cohorts Over 100 years

T2 - An Individual-Level Pooled Analysis of 42-Twin Cohorts

AU - Silventoinen, Karri

AU - Jelenkovic, Aline

AU - Latvala, Antti

AU - Sund, Reijo

AU - Yokoyama, Yoshie

AU - Ullemar, Vilhelmina

AU - Almqvist, Catarina

AU - Derom, Catherine A

AU - Vlietinck, Robert F

AU - Loos, Ruth J F

AU - Kandler, Christian

AU - Honda, Chika

AU - Inui, Fujio

AU - Iwatani, Yoshinori

AU - Watanabe, Mikio

AU - Rebato, Esther

AU - Stazi, Maria A

AU - Fagnani, Corrado

AU - Brescianini, Sonia

AU - Hur, Yoon-Mi

AU - Jeong, Hoe-Uk

AU - Cutler, Tessa L

AU - Hopper, John L

AU - Busjahn, Andreas

AU - Saudino, Kimberly J

AU - Ji, Fuling

AU - Ning, Feng

AU - Pang, Zengchang

AU - Rose, Richard J

AU - Koskenvuo, Markku

AU - Heikkilä, Kauko

AU - Cozen, Wendy

AU - Hwang, Amie E

AU - Mack, Thomas M

AU - Siribaddana, Sisira H

AU - Hotopf, Matthew

AU - Sumathipala, Athula

AU - Rijsdijk, Fruhling

AU - Sung, Joohon

AU - Kim, Jina

AU - Lee, Jooyeon

AU - Lee, Sooji

AU - Nelson, Tracy L

AU - Whitfield, Keith E

AU - Tan, Qihua

AU - Zhang, Dongfeng

AU - Llewellyn, Clare H

AU - Fisher, Abigail

AU - Burt, S Alexandra

AU - Klump, Kelly L

AU - Knafo-Noam, Ariel

AU - Mankuta, David

AU - Abramson, Lior

AU - Medland, Sarah E

AU - Martin, Nicholas G

AU - Montgomery, Grant W

AU - Magnusson, Patrik K E

AU - Pedersen, Nancy L

AU - Dahl Aslan, Anna K

AU - Corley, Robin P

AU - Huibregtse, Brooke M

AU - Öncel, Sevgi Y

AU - Aliev, Fazil

AU - Krueger, Robert F

AU - McGue, Matt

AU - Pahlen, Shandell

AU - Willemsen, Gonneke

AU - Bartels, Meike

AU - van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M

AU - Silberg, Judy L

AU - Eaves, Lindon J

AU - Maes, Hermine H

AU - Harris, Jennifer R

AU - Brandt, Ingunn

AU - Nilsen, Thomas S

AU - Rasmussen, Finn

AU - Tynelius, Per

AU - Baker, Laura A

AU - Tuvblad, Catherine

AU - Ordoñana, Juan R

AU - Sánchez-Romera, Juan F

AU - Colodro-Conde, Lucia

AU - Gatz, Margaret

AU - Butler, David A

AU - Lichtenstein, Paul

AU - Goldberg, Jack H

AU - Harden, K Paige

AU - Tucker-Drob, Elliot M

AU - Duncan, Glen E

AU - Buchwald, Dedra

AU - Tarnoki, Adam D

AU - Tarnoki, David L

AU - Franz, Carol E

AU - Kremen, William S

AU - Lyons, Michael J

AU - Maia, José A

AU - Freitas, Duarte L

AU - Turkheimer, Eric

AU - Sørensen, Thorkild I A

AU - Boomsma, Dorret I

AU - Kaprio, Jaakko

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - Whether monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins differ from each other in a variety of phenotypes is important for genetic twin modeling and for inferences made from twin studies in general. We analyzed whether there were differences in individual, maternal and paternal education between MZ and DZ twins in a large pooled dataset. Information was gathered on individual education for 218,362 adult twins from 27 twin cohorts (53% females; 39% MZ twins), and on maternal and paternal education for 147,315 and 143,056 twins respectively, from 28 twin cohorts (52% females; 38% MZ twins). Together, we had information on individual or parental education from 42 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. The original education classifications were transformed to education years and analyzed using linear regression models. Overall, MZ males had 0.26 (95% CI [0.21, 0.31]) years and MZ females 0.17 (95% CI [0.12, 0.21]) years longer education than DZ twins. The zygosity difference became smaller in more recent birth cohorts for both males and females. Parental education was somewhat longer for fathers of DZ twins in cohorts born in 1990-1999 (0.16 years, 95% CI [0.08, 0.25]) and 2000 or later (0.11 years, 95% CI [0.00, 0.22]), compared with fathers of MZ twins. The results show that the years of both individual and parental education are largely similar in MZ and DZ twins. We suggest that the socio-economic differences between MZ and DZ twins are so small that inferences based upon genetic modeling of twin data are not affected.

AB - Whether monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins differ from each other in a variety of phenotypes is important for genetic twin modeling and for inferences made from twin studies in general. We analyzed whether there were differences in individual, maternal and paternal education between MZ and DZ twins in a large pooled dataset. Information was gathered on individual education for 218,362 adult twins from 27 twin cohorts (53% females; 39% MZ twins), and on maternal and paternal education for 147,315 and 143,056 twins respectively, from 28 twin cohorts (52% females; 38% MZ twins). Together, we had information on individual or parental education from 42 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. The original education classifications were transformed to education years and analyzed using linear regression models. Overall, MZ males had 0.26 (95% CI [0.21, 0.31]) years and MZ females 0.17 (95% CI [0.12, 0.21]) years longer education than DZ twins. The zygosity difference became smaller in more recent birth cohorts for both males and females. Parental education was somewhat longer for fathers of DZ twins in cohorts born in 1990-1999 (0.16 years, 95% CI [0.08, 0.25]) and 2000 or later (0.11 years, 95% CI [0.00, 0.22]), compared with fathers of MZ twins. The results show that the years of both individual and parental education are largely similar in MZ and DZ twins. We suggest that the socio-economic differences between MZ and DZ twins are so small that inferences based upon genetic modeling of twin data are not affected.

KW - Journal Article

KW - Education

KW - Parental education

KW - Twins

KW - Zygosity

U2 - 10.1017/thg.2017.49

DO - 10.1017/thg.2017.49

M3 - Journal article

VL - 20

SP - 395

EP - 405

JO - Twin Research and Human Genetics

JF - Twin Research and Human Genetics

SN - 1832-4274

IS - 5

ER -