Education in Focused Lung Ultrasound Using Gamified Immersive Virtual Reality: A Randomized Controlled Study

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Focused lung ultrasound (FLUS) has high diagnostic accuracy in many common conditions seen in a variety of emergency settings. Competencies are essential for diagnostic success and patient safety but can be challenging to acquire in clinical environments. Immersive virtual reality (IVR) offers an interactive risk-free learning environment and is progressing as an educational tool. First, this study explored the educational impact of novice FLUS users participating in a gamified or non-gamified IVR training module in FLUS by comparing test scores using a test with proven validity evidence. Second, the learning effect was assessed by comparing scores of each group with known test scores of novices, intermediates and experienced users in FLUS. A total of 48 participants were included: 24 received gamified and 24 received non-gamified IVR training. No significant difference was found between gamified (mean = 15.5 points) and non-gamified (mean = 15.2 points), indicating that chosen gamification elements for our setup did not affect learning outcome (p = 0.66). The mean scores of both groups did not significantly differ from those of known intermediate users in FLUS (gamified p = 0.63, non-gamified p = 0.24), indicating that both IVR modules could be used as unsupervised out-of-hospital training for novice trainees in FLUS.

Original languageEnglish
JournalUltrasound in Medicine & Biology
Issue number3
Pages (from-to)841-852
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2023


  • Clinical Competence
  • Education, Medical
  • Humans
  • Simulation Training
  • Virtual Reality


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