Drug Permeability Profiling Using the Novel Permeapad® 96-Well Plate

Ann Christin Jacobsen, Sune Nielsen, Martin Brandl, Annette Bauer-Brandl*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


PURPOSE: Here, first experiences with a prototype tool for high throughput (passive) permeability profiling, a 96-well plate comprising the Permeapad® membrane, are reported. The permeabilities of a set of drugs were determined and compared to published measures of oral absorption, such as human fraction absorbed (Fa) and in vitro permeability values obtained using other tools. METHODS: The tool consists of a 96-well bottom and screen plate with the artificial, phospholipid-based barrier (Permeapad®) mounted between the plates' lower and upper compartments. The permeability of 14 model compounds including high- and low-absorption drugs, cationic, anionic, zwitterionic and neutral molecules, was determined by quantifying the compounds' transport over time, deriving the steady-state flux from the linear part of the cumulative curves and calculating the apparent permeability (Papp). The membrane structure was investigated in a high-resolution digital light microscope. RESULTS: The Permeapad® 96-well plate was found suited to distinguish high and low absorption drugs and yielded a hyperbolic correlation to Fa. The Papp values obtained were congruent with those determined with in-house prepared Permeapad® in the Franz cell set-up. Furthermore, good to excellent correlations were seen with Caco-2 permeability (R2 = 0.70) and PAMPA permeability (R2 = 0.89). Microscopic investigation of the Permeapad® barrier revealed the formation of phospholipid vesicles and myelin figures in aqueous environment. CONCLUSION: The Permeapad® 96-well plate permeation set-up is a promising new tool for rapid and reproducible passive permeability profiling.

Original languageEnglish
Article number93
JournalPharmaceutical Research
Issue number6
Number of pages15
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • 96-well plate
  • artificial barrier
  • high throughput
  • intestinal absorption
  • microplate
  • permeability


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