Doing LLBC research with young learners

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingBook chapterEducationpeer-review


The chapter presents research methodologies for doing research on second/foreign language (L2) learning beyond the classroom with your learners. In this context, young learners refer to primary school pupils between the ages of 6 and 11 (Ellis, 2014). Specifically, the chapter focuses on describing quantitative and qualitative methods used in young learner research. After a brief introductory section on LLBC research with young learners, follows a section on key constructs and some points for general concern in relation to young learner research. After this, key issues in young learner research are addressed. First, quantitative methods are presented with focus on drafting questionnaires and language diaries and as well as deciding on the appropriate instrument. Here after a qualitative methods’ section describes young learner interviews and field observations. The chapter is rounded off with sections on implications, guided questions and suggested readings. The chapter aims to create awareness of and suggest ways to address challenges connected with young learner research (e.g. limited attention span and memory) while also highlighting the benefits of drawing on children’s own resources and experiences.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThe Routledge Handbook of Language Learning and Teaching Beyond the Classroom
EditorsPia Sundqvist, Lai Chun, Hayo Reinders
Number of pages23
Place of PublicationNew York
PublisherRoutledge book series
Publication date1. Apr 2022
ISBN (Print) 9780367499389
ISBN (Electronic)9781003048169
Publication statusPublished - 1. Apr 2022


  • young learners
  • research methodology
  • Extramural english


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