Diagnostic Accuracy of Urine Lipoarabinomannan Testing in Early Morning Urine versus Spot Urine for Diagnosis of Tuberculosis among People with HIV

Stephanie Bjerrum*, Johanna Åhsberg, Rita Szekely, Japheth Opintan, Margaret Lartey, Maunank Shah, Satoshi Mitarai, Tobias Broger, Morten Ruhwald, Isik Somuncu Johansen

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

The Fujifilm SILVAMP TB LAM (FujiLAM) assay offers improved sensitivity compared to Determine TB LAM Ag (AlereLAM) for detecting tuberculosis (TB) among people with HIV. Here, we examined the diagnostic value of FujiLAM testing on early morning urine versus spot urine and the added value of a two-sample strategy. We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of FujiLAM on cryopreserved urine samples collected and stored as part of a prospective cohort of adults with HIV presenting for antiretroviral treatment in Ghana. We compared FujiLAM sensitivity and specificity in spontaneously voided urine samples collected at inclusion (spot urine) versus in the first voided early morning urine (morning urine) and for a one (spot urine) versus two samples (spot and morning urine) strategy. Diagnostic accuracy was determined against both microbiological (using sputum culture and Xpert MTB/RIF testing of sputum and urine to confirm TB) and composite reference standards (including microbiologically confirmed and probable TB cases). Paired urine samples of spot and morning urine were available for 389 patients. Patients had a median CD4 cell count of 176 cells/mL (interquartile range [IQR], 52 to 361). Forty-three (11.0%) had confirmed TB, and 19 (4.9%) had probable TB. Overall agreement for spot versus morning urine test results was 94.6% (kappa, 0.81). Compared to a microbiological reference standard, the FujiLAM sensitivity (95% confidence interval [CI]) was 67.4% (51.5 to 80.9) for spot and 69.8% (53.9 to 82.8) for morning urine, an absolute difference (95% CI) of 2.4% (210.2 to 14.8). Specificity was 90.2% (86.5 to 93.1) versus 89.0% (85.2 to 92.1) for spot and morning urine, respectively, a difference of 1.2% (23.7 to 1.4). A two-sample strategy increased FujiLAM sensitivity from 67.4% (51.5 to 80.9) to 74.4% (58.8 to 86.5), a difference of 7.0% (23.0 to 16.9), while specificity decreased from 90.2% (86.5 to 93.1) to 87.3% (83.3 to 90.6), a difference of 22.9% (24.9 to 20.8). This study indicates that FujiLAM testing performs equivalently on spot and early morning urine samples. Sensitivity could be increased with a two-sample strategy but at the risk of lower specificity. These data can inform future guidelines and clinical practice. IMPORTANCE This study indicates that FujiLAM testing performs equivalently on spot and early morning urine samples for detecting tuberculosis among people with HIV. Sensitivity could be increased with a two-sample strategy but at the risk of lower specificity. These data can inform future guidelines and clinical practice around FujiLAM.

Original languageEnglish
JournalMicrobiology Spectrum
Volume10
Issue number2
Number of pages11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 27. Apr 2022

Keywords

  • accuracy
  • diagnostic accuracy
  • HIV
  • LAM
  • lipoarabinomannan
  • tuberculosis
  • urine
  • Prospective Studies
  • Humans
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Tuberculosis/diagnosis
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  • HIV Infections/complications
  • Adult

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