Development and Feasibility Test of a Theory- and Evidence-Based Multicomponent Intervention to Reduce Student Smoking at Danish Vocational Schools
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The smoking prevalence among vocational education and training (VET) students is high. This paper describes the development and feasibility test of a multicomponent intervention designed to promote non-smoking behaviour at VET schools. We applied the Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW) stages and the capability, opportunity, and motivation for behaviour (COM-B) model to develop the intervention components based on theory, evidence, and a thorough needs-assessment study. Moreover, we feasibility-tested the preliminary ideas. All in all, our study was based on the literature, survey data, fieldwork, workshops, and expert and stakeholder involvement. The final intervention programme targets VET students’ smoking behaviour at the school, class, and individual levels through (a) a comprehensive tobacco policy to limit the physical and social opportunities to smoke, supplemented with a two-day staff course in conversations about smoking and an edutainment session (a lecture that both educates and entertains) to support a smoke-free environment; (b) classroom curricular with teaching materials to increase knowledge and social support, along with a quit-and-win competition to increase motivation; and (c) the national Quitline adapted to VET students to increase access to cessation support. The BCW model enabled a systematic and comprehensive development of an intervention, which demonstrates relevant techniques and delivery options to have the potential to reduce smoking in VET schools.