Developing a reference model for human-robot interaction

Ali Ahmad Malik, Arne Bilberg

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


The use of collaborative robots is on the rise for human-centered automation for developing flexible production systems. The deployment of collaborative robots and distribution of tasks between human and robot carries several challenges. One challenge is assessing the right level of human engagement with the fellow robot in the collaborative work while remaining in line with safety limitations and cycle time constraints. This study explores various types and levels of interactions between humans and robots in a manufacturing domain. A synthesizing architecture of human–robot collaboration is suggested based on three dimensions of team composition, level of engagement and safety. The architecture describes the collaboration using a 3-dimensional reference scale.
Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing
Issue number4
Pages (from-to)1541-1547
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2019


  • Human–robot collaboration
  • Human–robot interaction
  • Model
  • Taxonomy


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