Designing Internet of Behaviors Systems

Mahyar T. Moghaddam*, Henry Muccini, Julie Dugdale, Mikkel Baun Kjærgaard

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingArticle in proceedingsResearchpeer-review


The Internet of Behaviors (IoB) puts human behavior at the core of engineering intelligent connected systems. IoB links the digital world to human behavior to integrate human-driven design, development, and adaptation processes. This paper defines the novel IoB concept with a constructed model based on a collective effort interacting with software engineers, human-computer interaction scientists, social scientists, and cognitive science communities. The model for IoB is created based on an exploratory study that synthesizes state-of-the-art analysis and experts interviews. The architecture of a real industry 4.0 manufacturing infrastructure helps to explain the IoB model and its application. The conceptual model was used to successfully implement a socio-technical infrastructure for a crowd monitoring and queue management system for the Uffizi Galleries, Florence, Italy. The experiment, which started in the fall of 2016 and was operational in the fall of 2018, used a data-driven approach to feed the system with real-time sensory data. It also incorporated prediction models on visitors' mobility behavior. The system's main objective was to capture human behavior, model it, and build a mechanism that considers changes, adapts in real-time, and continuously learns from repetitive behaviors. In addition to the conceptual model and the real-life evaluation, this paper provides recommendations from experts and gives future directions for IoB to become a significant technological advancement in the coming years.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2022 IEEE 19th International Conference on Software Architecture (ICSA), 2022
Publication date2022
ISBN (Electronic)9781665417280
Publication statusPublished - 2022
Event19th IEEE International Conference on Software Architecture, ICSA 2022 - Virtual, Online, United States
Duration: 12. Mar 202215. Mar 2022


Conference19th IEEE International Conference on Software Architecture, ICSA 2022
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityVirtual, Online
SponsorIEEE Computer Society


  • Crowd Management
  • Cultural Heritage
  • HCI
  • HITL
  • Human Behavior Modeling
  • Intelligent Systems
  • IoB
  • IoT
  • Software Engineering


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