Design of Looped Wire Rope Connections between Concrete Wall-Elements: Experimental Investigation and Establishment of Mechanical Model for the Anchorage Capacity of Looped Wire Ropes

Torkil Veyhe*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: ThesisPh.D. thesis

Abstract

In Denmark and many other countries, looped wire rope connections are the preferred method for connecting prefabricated RC wall elements.

In Denmark and many other countries, the so-called looped wire rope connections are the preferred method for connecting prefabricated RC wall-elements. This construction-friendly connection saves time during installation and reduces the risk of damage under transportation. After installing the elements, the looped wire ropes are unfolded, and a lacer bar is placed through the centre of the overlapping looped wire ropes. Subsequently, the connection is grouted with mortar. The looped wire ropes are anchored in the wall-element. Here, a ferrule (metallic connector around the end of the wire rope) facilitates the anchorage. Models in the literature assume that the looped wire ropes are adequately anchored in the wall-element without further consideration. In practice, manufacturers’ guidelines are commonly used to design the anchorage of looped wire ropes in wall-elements. However, there are concerns that these guidelines, based on unpublished experiments, may not account for ductility and activation of multiple looped wire ropes. Moreover, it limits the ability to optimise anchoring and reinforcement, which could reduce the CO2 footprint.

Only two models for the anchorage capacity are available in the literature. Both are proposed based on rough simplifications without any experimental evidence. One proposes to use the bond strength of a straight wire rope to determine the anchorage capacity, while the other proposes to use a model originally developed to determine the capacity of a partially loaded concrete with failure mechanisms that are not kinematically admissible for the anchorage of wire ropes. Consequently, no reliable model exists to determine the anchorage capacity of a looped wire rope with a ferrule in a wall-element.

The aim of the PhD project is to develop experimentally verified mechanical models for the anchorage capacity of looped wire ropes for wall connections.

A literature study identifies that there are no published experiments for the anchorage of looped wire ropes, but there exist models and experiments with specimens that resemble them. However, the literature study identifies a lack of experimental evidence for specific failure mechanisms for looped wire ropes placed at an endconnection. There is also a lack of experimental investigation on failure mechanisms related to bent looped wire ropes anchored in L- and T-connections.

The thesis presents two large experimental campaigns where the anchorage capacity of looped wire ropes in concrete wall-elements is tested through direct tension experiments. The experiments investigate the looped wire ropes placed at the end and the side of the wall-elements, respectively. Mechanical models for the anchorage capacity are developed based on observed failure mechanisms and the upper bound theorem of plasticity. These models are combined with existing models for well-studied failure mechanisms in a complete model for anchorage capacity in endconnections, T-connections, and L-connections. The models are in good agreement with experimental results, both in terms of capacity and predicted failure mechanisms.

Two additional experimental campaigns are presented to validate the developed models. The two additional campaigns investigate if failure mechanisms observed in the direct tension experiment and considered in the developed models are representative in a full connection where two wall-elements are connected and subjected to shear. The anchorage model for wall connections subjected to shear is indirectly validated by comparing it with experimentally found shear capacities of looped wire rope connections. The anchorage capacity models are included as a limitation for the shear model.

Finally, it is discussed how the anchorage response affects the shear capacity of a connection in practice. This includes the importance of having a ductile anchorage response for wire ropes. Additionally, practical considerations are provided when designing connections with multiple looped wire ropes to ensure a ductile response.
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
  • University of Southern Denmark
Supervisors/Advisors
  • Jørgensen, Henrik Brøner, Principal supervisor
  • Hansen, Søren Gustenhoff, Supervisor
  • Suikkanen, Bernt, Supervisor, External person
Date of defence26. Apr 2024
Publisher
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 4. Apr 2024

Note re. dissertation

A print copy of the thesis can be accessed at the Library. 

Keywords

  • Precast concrete wall connection
  • Anchorage capacity
  • Looped wire rope
  • Concrete plasticity
  • Limit analysis
  • Rigid plastic modelling
  • Experimental work
  • Precast concrete T- and L-connection

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