The comparative clinical and demographic features of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) are not well known. In this review we analyzed peer-reviewed publications for incidence and prevalence, clinical phenotypes, and demographic features of NMO. Population-based studies from Europe, South East and Southern Asia, the Caribbean, and Cuba suggest that the incidence and prevalence of NMO ranges from 0.05-0.4 and 0.52-4.4 per 100,000, respectively. Mean age at onset (32.6-45.7) and median time to first relapse (8-12 months) was similar. Most studies reported an excess of disease in women and a relapsing course, particularly in anti-aquaporin 4 antibody (anti AQP4-IgG)-positive patients. Ethnicity may have a bearing on disease phenotype and clinical outcome. Despite limitations inherent to the review process, themes noted in clinical and demographic features of NMO among different populations promote a more global understanding of NMO and strategies to address it.
Pandit, L., Asgari, N., Apiwattanakul, M., Palace, J., Paul, F., Leite, M. I., Kleiter, I., & Chitnis, T. (2015). Demographic and clinical features of neuromyelitis optica: A review. Multiple Sclerosis Journal, 21(7), 845-853. https://doi.org/10.1177/1352458515572406