Degradation Behavior of Scalable Nonfullerene Organic Solar Cells Assessed by Outdoor and Indoor ISOS Stability Protocols

William Greenbank, Naas Djeddaoui, Elodie Destouesse, Jani Lamminaho, Michela Prete, Larbi Boukezzi, Thomas Ebel, Lakhdar Bessissa, Horst-Günter Rubahn, Vida Engmann, Morten Madsen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


The development of nonfullerene acceptors (NFAs) has led to dramatic improvements in the device efficiencies of organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. To date it is, however, still unclear how those laboratory-scale efficiencies transfer to commercial modules, and how stable these devices will be when processed via industrially compatible methods. Herein, the degradation behavior of lab-scale and scalable OPV devices using similar nonfullerene-based active layers is assessed. It is demonstrated that the scalable NFA OPV exhibits completely reversible degradation when assessed in ISOS-O-1 outdoor conditions, which is in contrast to the laboratory-scale devices assessed via the indoor ISOS-L-2 protocol. Results from transient photovoltage (TPV) indicate the presence of charge trap formation, and a number of potential mechanisms are proposed for the selective occurrence of this in laboratory-scale devices tested in ISOS-L laboratory conditions—ultimately concluding that it has its origins in the different device architectures used. The study points at the risk of assessing active layer stability from laboratory-scale devices and degradation studies alone and highlights the importance of using a diverse range of testing conditions and ISOS protocols for such assessment.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2000295
JournalEnergy Technology
Issue number12
Number of pages10
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2020


  • organic solar cells
  • scalable fabrication
  • transient photovoltage

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