Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) technology now offers power conversion efficiency (PCE) of over 18% and is one of the main emerging photovoltaic technologies. In such devices, titanium dioxide (TiOx) has been vastly used as an electron extraction layer, typically showing unwanted charge-extraction barriers and the need for light-soaking. In the present work, using advanced photoemission spectroscopies, we investigate the electronic interplay at the interface between low-temperature-sputtered TiOx and C70 acceptor fullerene molecules. We show that defect states in the band gap of TiOx are quenched by C70 while an interfacial state appears. This new interfacial state is expected to support the favorable energy band alignment observed, showing a perfect match of transport levels, and thus barrier-free extraction of charges, making low-temperature-sputtered TiOx a good candidate for the next generation of organic solar cells.
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© 2021 American Chemical Society.
- gap state
- interface state
- organic solar cell
- resonant photoemission
- titanium dioxide