Danish population health measured by the EQ-5D-5L

Morten B. Jensen*, Cathrine E. Jensen, Claire Gudex, Kjeld M. Pedersen, Sabrina S. Sørensen, Lars H. Ehlers

*Corresponding author for this work

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Aims: The aims of this study were to provide Danish population norms for the EQ-5D-5L and to assess the measurement properties of the instrument in a Danish population setting. Methods: We used data from the Danish 5L valuation study in which a representative sample of the Danish population completed the EQ-5D-5L and answered socio-demographic questions. We generated population norms for the five EQ-5D-5L dimensions, corresponding utility scores and the EQ-5D visual analogue scale (EQ VAS) according to age and sex. Measurement properties of ceiling effects, known-group construct validity and convergent validity were assessed. Results: The mean EQ-5D-5L utility score for the 1014 respondents completing the EQ-5D-5L was 0.90 (standard deviation (SD)=0.16). No significant differences emerged across age groups (minimum mean utility score=0.88 (SD=0.19); maximum mean utility score=0.93 (SD=0.11)) or sex (mean utility score for women=0.89 (SD=0.17); mean utility score for men=0.91 (SD=0.15)). Statistical differences were found across educational level, occupational status, income and living situation. Similar patterns were observed for the EQ VAS. Generally, respondents most often reported problems with pain and discomfort, but young women most often reported problems with anxiety/depression. There was a significant strong correlation between EQ-5D-5L utility and the EQ VAS and a significant correlation between overall health and each of the five EQ-5D-5L dimensions. The overall ceiling effect for the EQ-5D-5L was 39% (compared to 56% for the EQ-5D-3L). Conclusions: Danish population norms for the EQ-5D-5L are now available. We found fewer ceiling effects for the EQ-5D-5L compared to the EQ-5D-3L, and we provide evidence for convergent and known-group validity of the EQ-5D-5L.

Original languageEnglish
JournalScandinavian Journal of Public Health
Issue number2
Pages (from-to)241-249
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2023


  • Denmark
  • EQ-5D-5L
  • health-related quality of life
  • population norms
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Psychometrics/methods
  • Quality of Life
  • Female
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Population Health
  • Health Status


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