The popularity of adipose-derived cell therapy has increased over the last decade, and the number of studies published annually is growing. However, concerns regarding safety in the setting of previous malignancy or the use of allogeneic cells have been raised. We therefore aimed to systematically review all clinical studies using adipose-derived cell therapy to identify reported adverse events with a special focus on risk of thromboembolic, immunological, and oncological safety concerns. Our systematic search resulted in 70 included studies involving more than 1,400 patients that were treated with adipose-derived cell therapy. Safety assessment method was not described in 32 of the included studies. For studies involving systemic or cardiac administration, one case of pulmonary thromboembolism and cases of both myocardial and cerebral infarctions were described. In the setting of allogeneic cell therapy studies, where the production of specific antibodies toward donor cells was examined, it was noted that 19%–34% of patients develop antibodies, but the consequence of this is unknown. With regard to oncological safety, only one case of breast cancer recurrence was identified out of 121 patients. Adipose-derived cell therapy has so far shown a favorable safety profile, but safety assessment description has, in general, been of poor quality, and only adverse events that are looked for will be found. We encourage future studies to maintain a strong focus on the safety profile of cell therapy, so its safeness can be confirmed. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:1786–1794.
- Journal Article
- Adipose-derived stromal cells
- Adverse events
- Stromal vascular fraction
- Adipose Tissue/cytology
- Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects