The traditional approach to the study of cognition in organizations has focused on the individual and it has maintained the locus of cognition in the human brain. Computational Organizational Cognition departs from this view to propose that cognition extends outside of the brain and that, to understand its workings in an organizational context, it is mainly defined by social exchanges (Part I). This includes thinking and action as they depend on a complex set of dynamics. In an attempt to refine this theorizing effort, the book presents an innovative approach, called Agent-based computational Organizational Cognition (AOC). Through the means of advanced computational simulation techniques, the book presents models that challenge both traditional approaches to cognition and a standard distributed cognitive view that underplays social organizational interactions (Part II). The book then reconciles the findings of AOC with a theory of socially distributed cognition by highlighting the way in which structural organizational elements (e.g., culture, routines, procedures) enmesh with individuals and their behavior over a diversity of timescales. The underlying assumption is that organizational cognition is as dynamic, ambiguous, and unpredictable as a complex system. Hence its study needs approaches to effectively deal with complexity. AOC is probably the most effective of these approaches.