Comparative Analysis of Type 1 and Type Z Protein Phosphatases Reveals D615 as a Key Residue for Ppz1 Regulation

Antonio Casamayor, Diego Velázquez, Carlos Santolaria, Marcel Albacar, Morten I. Rasmussen, Peter Højrup, Joaquín Ariño*

*Corresponding author for this work

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Type 1 Ser/Thr protein phosphatases are represented in all fungi by two enzymes, the ubiquitous PP1, with a conserved catalytic polypeptide (PP1c) and numerous regulatory subunits, and PPZ, with a C-terminal catalytic domain related to PP1c and a variable N-terminal extension. Current evidence indicates that, although PP1 and PPZ enzymes might share some cellular targets and regulatory subunits, their functions are quite separated, and they have individual regulation. We explored the structures of PP1c and PPZ across 57 fungal species to identify those features that (1) are distinctive among these enzymes and (2) have been preserved through evolution. PP1c enzymes are more conserved than PPZs. Still, we identified 26 residues in the PP1 and PPZ catalytic moieties that are specific for each kind of phosphatase. In some cases, these differences likely affect the distribution of charges in the surface of the protein. In many fungi, Hal3 is a specific inhibitor of the PPZ phosphatases, although the basis for the interaction of these proteins is still obscure. By in vivo co-purification of the catalytic domain of ScPpz1 and ScHal3, followed by chemical cross-linking and MS analysis, we identified a likely Hal3-interacting region in ScPpz1 characterized by two major and conserved differences, D566 and D615 in ScPpz1, which correspond to K210 and K259 in ScPP1c (Glc7). Functional analysis showed that changing D615 to K renders Ppz1 refractory to Hal3 inhibition. Since ScHal3 does not regulate Glc7 but it inhibits all fungal PPZ tested so far, this conserved D residue could be pivotal for the differential regulation of both enzymes in fungi.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1327
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Cross-linking proteomics
  • Enzyme inhibition
  • Fungi
  • PP1c
  • Ppz1
  • Protein phosphatase
  • Sequence comparisons


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