Resistance to aromatase inhibitor (AI) treatment and combined CDK4/6 inhibitor (CDK4/6i) and endocrine therapy (ET) are crucial clinical challenges in treating estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer. Understanding the resistance mechanisms and identifying reliable predictive biomarkers and novel treatment combinations to overcome resistance are urgently needed. Herein, we show that upregulation of CDK6, p-CDK2, and/or cyclin E1 is associated with adaptation and resistance to AI-monotherapy and combined CDK4/6i and ET in ER+ advanced breast cancer. Importantly, co-targeting CDK2 and CDK4/6 with ET synergistically impairs cellular growth, induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and delays progression in AI-resistant and combined CDK4/6i and fulvestrant-resistant cell models and in an AI-resistant autocrine breast tumor in a postmenopausal xenograft model. Analysis of CDK6, p-CDK2, and/or cyclin E1 expression as a combined biomarker in metastatic lesions of ER+ advanced breast cancer patients treated with AI-monotherapy or combined CDK4/6i and ET revealed a correlation between high biomarker expression and shorter progression-free survival (PFS), and the biomarker combination was an independent prognostic factor in both patients cohorts. Our study supports the clinical development of therapeutic strategies co-targeting ER, CDK4/6 and CDK2 following progression on AI-monotherapy or combined CDK4/6i and ET to improve survival of patients exhibiting high tumor levels of CDK6, p-CDK2, and/or cyclin E1.