Clinical Trials and Future Outlooks of the Port Delivery System with Ranibizumab: A Narrative Review

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The port delivery system (PDS) of anti-VEGF therapy provides continuous delivery of ranibizumab (RBZ). In October of 2021, the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the PDS with RBZ as a treatment option for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). As the field of PDS with RBZ is progressing rapidly, this narrative review provides a much-needed overview of existing clinical trials as well as ongoing and upcoming trials investigating PDS with RBZ. The phase 2 LADDER trial reported that the mean time to first refill with RBZ PDS 100 mg/ml was 15.8 months (80% CI 12.1–20.6), and pharmacokinetic profiling revealed a sustained concentration of RBZ in serum and aqueous humor. Later, the phase 3 ARCHWAY trial reported that PDS with RBZ (100 mg/ml) refilled every 24 weeks was non-inferior to monthly intravitreal injection (IVI) with RBZ (0.5 mg) in patients with nAMD over 9 months and 2 years. However, patients with PDS had a higher rate of adverse events including vitreous hemorrhage and endophthalmitis. Patients indicate high treatment satisfaction with both PDS and IVI, but the lower number of treatments with PDS was reported as a preferred choice. Several ongoing and future clinical trials, of which details are discussed in this paper, are further exploring the potentials of PDS with RBZ. We conclude that the PDS provides continuous deliverance of RBZ and that clinical efficacy levels are non-inferior to IVI therapy for nAMD. Yet, a higher rate of adverse events remains a concerning detail for widespread implementation. Future studies are warranted to better understand which patients may benefit best from this treatment approach, if long-term efficacy can be sustained, and if safety of PDS can be further improved.

Original languageEnglish
JournalOphthalmology and Therapy
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)51-69
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2024


  • Anti-VEGF
  • Diabetic macular edema
  • Intraocular drug administration
  • Intravitreal injection
  • Neovascular age-related macular degeneration
  • Port delivery system
  • Ranibizumab


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