Can online and app-based interventions be used by people with diabetes to reduce diabetes distress? A protocol for a scoping review

Christina Maar Andersen*, Anne Sophie Mathiesen, François Pouwer, Julie Drotner Mouritsen, Kim Mathiasen, Mette Juel Rothmann

*Corresponding author for this work

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INTRODUCTION: Diabetes distress has been defined as "the negative emotional or affective experience resulting from the challenge of living with the demands of diabetes". Diabetes distress affects 20%-25% of individuals living with diabetes and can have negative effects on both diabetes regulation and quality of life. For people living with diabetes distress, innovative tools/interventions such as online or app-based interventions may potentially alleviate diabetes distress in a cost-effective way. The specific research questions of this scoping review are: (1) what are the effects of online or app-based interventions on diabetes distress for adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, and (2) what are the characteristics of these interventions (eg, type of intervention, duration, frequency, mode of delivery, underlying theories and working mechanisms)?

METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A scoping review will be conducted, using the methodological framework of Arksey and O'Malley along with Levac et al. Eligible studies are: studies of adults ≥18 years old with type 1 or 2 diabetes using an online or app-based intervention and assessing diabetes distress as the primary or secondary outcome. Five databases (Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Scopus) will be searched and is limited to articles written in English, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish or Dutch. Two reviewers will independently screen potentially eligible studies in Covidence, select studies, and together chart data, collate, summarise, and report the results. We will adhere to the Preferred reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR).

ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The scoping review has been exempt from full ethical review by the Regional Committees on Health Research Ethics for Southern Denmark (case number: S-20232000-88). The results of the review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at relevant conferences and workshops with relevant stakeholders.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere074015
JournalBMJ Open
Issue number11
Number of pages5
Publication statusPublished - 17. Nov 2023


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