Bone Marrow-Derived IL-1Ra Increases TNF Levels Poststroke

Christian Ulrich von Linstow, Sofie Mozart Hindkjær, Pernille Vinther Nielsen, Matilda Degn, Kate Lykke Lambertsen, Bente Finsen, Bettina Hjelm Clausen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) are key players in stroke, a disease in which cell-based therapies have shown great potential. Having shown an infarct-reducing effect of bone marrow (BM) cells, especially cells with high IL-1Ra expression, we here investigated the effect of BM cells on TNF and other stroke-related mediators in mice after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo) and in vitro using adult microglial cultures. We analyzed stroke-related genes and inflammatory mediators using qPCR stroke Tier panels, electrochemiluminescence, or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. We found a significant correlation and cellular colocalization between microglial-derived TNF and IL-1Ra, though IL-1Ra production was TNF independent. BM treatment significantly increased TNF, interleukin (IL)-10, and IL-4 levels, while C-X-C motif ligand 1 (CXCL1), IL-12p70, and Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) decreased, suggesting that BM treatment favors an anti-inflammatory environment. Hierarchical clustering identified Tnf and IL-1rn within the same gene cluster, and subsequent STRING analysis identified TLR2 as a shared receptor. Although IL-1Ra producing BM cells specifically modulated TNF levels, this was TLR2 independent. These results demonstrate BM cells as modulators of poststroke inflammation with beneficial effects on poststroke outcomes and place TNF and IL-1Ra as key players of the defense response after tMCAo.

Original languageEnglish
Article number956
Issue number4
Number of pages20
Publication statusPublished - 20. Apr 2021


  • brain
  • cell therapy
  • chemokines
  • cytokines
  • inflammation
  • mice
  • microglia
  • serum
  • stroke-related genes


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