Bioactive Nano-fibrous Scaffold for Vascularized Craniofacial Bone Regeneration

Rahul Damodaran Prabha, David Christian Evar Kraft, Linda Harkness, Birte Melsen, Harikrishna Varma, Prabha D Nair, Jorgen Kjems, Mousthapha Kassem

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    Abstract

    There has been a growing demand for bone grafts for correction of bone defects in complicated fractures or tumours in the craniofacial region. Soft flexible membrane like material that could be inserted into defect by less invasive approaches; promote osteoconductivity and act as a barrier to soft tissue in growth while promoting bone formation is an attractive option for this region. Electrospinning has recently emerged as one of the most promising techniques for fabrication of extracellular matrix such as nano-fibrous scaffolds that can serve as a template for bone formation. To overcome the limitation of cell penetration of electrospun scaffolds and improve on its osteoconductive nature, in this study, we fabricated a novel electrospun composite scaffold of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-poly (ε) caprolactone (PCL)-Hydroxyapatite based bioceramic (HAB), namely, PVA-PCL-HAB. The scaffold prepared by dual electrospinning of PVA and PCL with HAB overcomes reduced cell attachment associated with hydrophobic PCL by combination with a hydrophilic PVA and the HAB can contribute to enhance osteoconductivity. We characterized the physicochemical and biocompatibility properties of the new scaffold material. Our results indicate PVA-PCL-HAB scaffolds support attachment and growth of stromal stem cells; [human bone marrow skeletal (mesenchymal) stem cells and dental pulp stem cells]. In addition, the scaffold supported in vitro osteogenic differentiation and in vivo vascularized bone formation. Thus, PVA-PCL-HAB scaffold is a suitable potential material for therapeutic bone regeneration in dentistry and orthopaedics.

    Original languageEnglish
    JournalJournal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
    Volume12
    Issue number3
    Pages (from-to)e1537-e1548
    ISSN1932-6254
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Mar 2018

    Keywords

    • bioceramics
    • bone
    • craniofacial
    • electrospinning
    • scaffold
    • stem cells

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