Bicycling for Transportation and Recreation in Cardiovascular Disease Prevention

Anders Grøntved*, Martin Gillies Rasmussen, Kim Blond, Lars Østergaard, Zorana Jovanovic Andersen, Niels Christian Møller

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReviewResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Purpose of Review: Bicycling as a mode of transportation can be an easy and inexpensive way of integrating health enhancing physical activity into everyday life. In the present paper, we summarize the evidence from studies on bicycling for transportation and recreation in relation to cardiovascular disease prevention. We also estimate the population impact of increasing bicycling as a mode of transportation. Recent Findings: The overall evidence from prospective cohort studies supports that bicycling for transportation or recreation is related to lower risk of development of fatal or non-fatal cardiovascular disease and premature mortality. The decreased risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality from regular bicycling is estimated to outweigh risk from additional exposure to air pollution during outdoor exercise. Also, based on experimental studies on the effect of bicycling to school or work, we report an average increase (summary effect) on cardiorespiratory fitness of 3.56 ml O2/min/kg (95% CI 2.79 to 4.32) compared with control. Extrapolating the size of this average difference, approximately equivalent to 1 MET, then a right shift in the fitness distribution among adults in the general population would lead to substantial reductions in cases of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, we estimate a significant impact on cardiovascular mortality under plausible public health intervention scenarios increasing the percentage of the population bicycling to work. Summary: Bicycling remains an underutilized alternative to motorized transport in most countries, and promoting bicycling could be a viable approach in primordial and primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

Original languageEnglish
Article number26
JournalCurrent Cardiovascular Risk Reports
Volume13
Issue number9
Number of pages8
ISSN1932-9520
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1. Sep 2019

Fingerprint

Recreation
Primary Prevention
Population
Premature Mortality
Air Pollution
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Cohort Studies
Public Health
Prospective Studies

Keywords

  • Bicycling
  • Cardiovascular
  • Commuting
  • Mortality
  • Physical activity
  • Prevention

Cite this

@article{d39545ba2b134aeb8c7ed6929427ecf8,
title = "Bicycling for Transportation and Recreation in Cardiovascular Disease Prevention",
abstract = "Purpose of Review: Bicycling as a mode of transportation can be an easy and inexpensive way of integrating health enhancing physical activity into everyday life. In the present paper, we summarize the evidence from studies on bicycling for transportation and recreation in relation to cardiovascular disease prevention. We also estimate the population impact of increasing bicycling as a mode of transportation. Recent Findings: The overall evidence from prospective cohort studies supports that bicycling for transportation or recreation is related to lower risk of development of fatal or non-fatal cardiovascular disease and premature mortality. The decreased risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality from regular bicycling is estimated to outweigh risk from additional exposure to air pollution during outdoor exercise. Also, based on experimental studies on the effect of bicycling to school or work, we report an average increase (summary effect) on cardiorespiratory fitness of 3.56 ml O2/min/kg (95{\%} CI 2.79 to 4.32) compared with control. Extrapolating the size of this average difference, approximately equivalent to 1 MET, then a right shift in the fitness distribution among adults in the general population would lead to substantial reductions in cases of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, we estimate a significant impact on cardiovascular mortality under plausible public health intervention scenarios increasing the percentage of the population bicycling to work. Summary: Bicycling remains an underutilized alternative to motorized transport in most countries, and promoting bicycling could be a viable approach in primordial and primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases.",
keywords = "Bicycling, Cardiovascular, Commuting, Mortality, Physical activity, Prevention",
author = "Anders Gr{\o}ntved and Rasmussen, {Martin Gillies} and Kim Blond and Lars {\O}stergaard and Andersen, {Zorana Jovanovic} and M{\o}ller, {Niels Christian}",
year = "2019",
month = "9",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1007/s12170-019-0623-z",
language = "English",
volume = "13",
journal = "Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports",
issn = "1932-9520",
publisher = "Springer",
number = "9",

}

Bicycling for Transportation and Recreation in Cardiovascular Disease Prevention. / Grøntved, Anders; Rasmussen, Martin Gillies; Blond, Kim; Østergaard, Lars; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Møller, Niels Christian.

In: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports, Vol. 13, No. 9, 26, 01.09.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalReviewResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Bicycling for Transportation and Recreation in Cardiovascular Disease Prevention

AU - Grøntved, Anders

AU - Rasmussen, Martin Gillies

AU - Blond, Kim

AU - Østergaard, Lars

AU - Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic

AU - Møller, Niels Christian

PY - 2019/9/1

Y1 - 2019/9/1

N2 - Purpose of Review: Bicycling as a mode of transportation can be an easy and inexpensive way of integrating health enhancing physical activity into everyday life. In the present paper, we summarize the evidence from studies on bicycling for transportation and recreation in relation to cardiovascular disease prevention. We also estimate the population impact of increasing bicycling as a mode of transportation. Recent Findings: The overall evidence from prospective cohort studies supports that bicycling for transportation or recreation is related to lower risk of development of fatal or non-fatal cardiovascular disease and premature mortality. The decreased risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality from regular bicycling is estimated to outweigh risk from additional exposure to air pollution during outdoor exercise. Also, based on experimental studies on the effect of bicycling to school or work, we report an average increase (summary effect) on cardiorespiratory fitness of 3.56 ml O2/min/kg (95% CI 2.79 to 4.32) compared with control. Extrapolating the size of this average difference, approximately equivalent to 1 MET, then a right shift in the fitness distribution among adults in the general population would lead to substantial reductions in cases of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, we estimate a significant impact on cardiovascular mortality under plausible public health intervention scenarios increasing the percentage of the population bicycling to work. Summary: Bicycling remains an underutilized alternative to motorized transport in most countries, and promoting bicycling could be a viable approach in primordial and primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

AB - Purpose of Review: Bicycling as a mode of transportation can be an easy and inexpensive way of integrating health enhancing physical activity into everyday life. In the present paper, we summarize the evidence from studies on bicycling for transportation and recreation in relation to cardiovascular disease prevention. We also estimate the population impact of increasing bicycling as a mode of transportation. Recent Findings: The overall evidence from prospective cohort studies supports that bicycling for transportation or recreation is related to lower risk of development of fatal or non-fatal cardiovascular disease and premature mortality. The decreased risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality from regular bicycling is estimated to outweigh risk from additional exposure to air pollution during outdoor exercise. Also, based on experimental studies on the effect of bicycling to school or work, we report an average increase (summary effect) on cardiorespiratory fitness of 3.56 ml O2/min/kg (95% CI 2.79 to 4.32) compared with control. Extrapolating the size of this average difference, approximately equivalent to 1 MET, then a right shift in the fitness distribution among adults in the general population would lead to substantial reductions in cases of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, we estimate a significant impact on cardiovascular mortality under plausible public health intervention scenarios increasing the percentage of the population bicycling to work. Summary: Bicycling remains an underutilized alternative to motorized transport in most countries, and promoting bicycling could be a viable approach in primordial and primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

KW - Bicycling

KW - Cardiovascular

KW - Commuting

KW - Mortality

KW - Physical activity

KW - Prevention

U2 - 10.1007/s12170-019-0623-z

DO - 10.1007/s12170-019-0623-z

M3 - Review

VL - 13

JO - Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports

JF - Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports

SN - 1932-9520

IS - 9

M1 - 26

ER -