Beyond diabetes mellitus type 2: Neuropathy, arterial disease and foot deformity

Hosein Hemmati, Mobin Forghan, Zahra Abbasi Ranjbar, Zakiyeh Jafaryparvar, Elahe Rafiei, Sasan Andalib*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


BACKGROUND: Neuropathy, foot deformity, and vascular disease of foot arise from diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). In the present study, we evaluated neuropathy, foot deformity, and vascular disease of foot and other relevant factors in patients with DM2. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 123 subjects with DM2 were evaluated in a referral therapeutic center in Guilan province of Iran. Semmes-Weinstein monofilament testing, ankle brachial index, bidimensional plantar scan were used for evaluation of neuropathy, peripheral arterial disease, and deformity of feet, respectively. The subjects were categorized for diabetic foot risk level according to International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot (IWGDF) criteria. RESULTS: The average age of the patients was 66 years and 56.9% of the subjects were females. Furthermore, 58% of the subjects used insulin injection for treatment of DM2, while 29.3% of the patients had normal Body Mass Index and 40.7% and 43% of the patients experienced sensory neuropathy and arterial disease. Also, 82.9% of the patients suffered foot deformities, of which 33.3 and 19.6% experienced flatfoot and hallux rigidus, respectively. Age, disease duration, chronic kidney disease, muscle weakness, and HbA1C level were associated with higher IWGDF risk level. CONCLUSIONS: Neuropathy, arterial disease and deformity of feet, in addition to disease duration and lack of management intensified diabetic patients' problems. Higher prevalence of flatfoot and other relevant problems necessitate attention to diabetic foot ulcers in Iran.

Original languageEnglish
Issue number2
Pages (from-to)61-65
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2021

Bibliographical note

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© 2021 Edizioni Minerva Medica. All rights reserved.


  • Arteries
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Foot ulcer
  • Type 2


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