Auditing and design evaluation of building automation and control systems based on eu. bac system audit–Danish case study

Jacob Alstrup Engvang, Muhyiddine Jradi*

*Corresponding author for this work

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Improving the energy performance of buildings will prove vital for countries worldwide to reduce their energy consumption and emissions. A key player in reaching this goal is building automation and control, as having well-designed and operated building automation and control systems (BACS) provide large capabilities in optimizing the energy performance of different systems. In this regard, building owners and planners must be able to assess and evaluate the current status of their BACS and identify potential improvements. While there has been a large block of work done in Denmark along with regulations aiming to audit the overall building performance and individual systems characteristics, very little has been done in the field of auditing the building automation and control system and evaluating its structure and operation patterns. This lack of systematic BACS auditing and evaluation in Danish buildings is addressed in this work with the first implementation and evaluation of the eu.bac System methodology in a university office building. The building was found to comply with the lowest automation and control class E. Two BACS retrofit packages were proposed and evaluated, and energy savings up to 28.5% are reported. The preliminary assessment results reported demonstrate the potential of building automation and control retrofit measures in a combined holistic improvement package alongside building envelope upgrade. In addition, the impact of the eu.bac System improvements and labeling on the building's classification based on the recent Danish building regulation BR18 is evaluated. The study discusses the feasibility of eu.bac System tool implementation in Danish buildings and suggests improvements. It also correlates and compares the eu.bac System audit to the upcoming European SRI instrument. In light of the huge efforts to digitalize the Danish energy sector, ensuring proper design and operation of BACS is of great importance. Thus, a systematic and methodical BACS auditing and evaluation methodology will be a crucial part of buildings’ initial and retro-commissioning platforms.
Original languageEnglish
JournalEnergy and Built Environment
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)34-44
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2021


  • Building automation and control system, Bac System auditing, Eu.bac system, EN 15232, Danish case study


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