Association of current and former smoking with body mass index

A study of smoking discordant twin pairs from 21 twin cohorts

Maarit Piirtola*, Aline Jelenkovic, Antti Latvala, Reijo Sund, Chika Honda, Fujio Inui, Mikio Watanabe, Rie Tomizawa, Yoshinori Iwatani, Juan R. Ordoñana, Juan F. Sánchez-Romera, Lucia Colodro-Conde, Adam D. Tarnoki, David L. Tarnoki, Nicholas G. Martin, Grant W. Montgomery, Sarah E. Medland, Finn Rasmussen, Per Tynelius, Qihua Tan & 30 others Dongfeng Zhang, Zengchang Pang, Esther Rebato, Maria A. Stazi, Corrado Fagnani, Sonia Brescianini, Andreas Busjahn, Jennifer R. Harris, Ingunn Brandt, Thomas Sevenius Nilsen, Tessa L. Cutler, John L. Hopper, Robin P. Corley, Brooke M. Huibregtse, Joohon Sung, Jina Kim, Jooyeon Lee, Sooji Lee, Margaret Gatz, David A. Butler, Carol E. Franz, William S. Kremen, Michael J. Lyons, Patrik K.E. Magnusson, Nancy L. Pedersen, Anna K. Dahl Aslan, Sevgi Y. Öncel, Fazil Aliev, Catherine A. Derom, Robert F. Vlietinck

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

Background Smokers tend to weigh less than never smokers, while successful quitting leads to an increase in body weight. Because smokers and non-smokers may differ in genetic and environmental family background, we analysed data from twin pairs in which the co-twins differed by their smoking behaviour to evaluate if the association between smoking and body mass index (BMI) remains after controlling for family background. Methods and findings The international CODATwins database includes information on smoking and BMI measured between 1960 and 2012 from 156,593 twin individuals 18–69 years of age. Individual-based data (230,378 measurements) and data of smoking discordant twin pairs (altogether 30,014 pairwise measurements, 36% from monozygotic [MZ] pairs) were analysed with linear fixed-effects regression models by 10-year periods. In MZ pairs, the smoking co-twin had, on average, 0.57 kg/m2 lower BMI in men (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49, 0.70) and 0.65 kg/m2 lower BMI in women (95% CI: 0.52, 0.79) than the never smoking co-twin. Former smokers had 0.70 kg/m2 higher BMI among men (95% CI: 0.63, 0.78) and 0.62 kg/ m2 higher BMI among women (95% CI: 0.51, 0.73) than their currently smoking MZ co-twins. Little difference in BMI was observed when comparing former smoking co-twins with their never smoking MZ co-twins (0.13 kg/m2, 95% CI 0.04, 0.23 among men; -0.04 kg/m2, 95% CI -0.16, 0.09 among women). The associations were similar within dizygotic pairs and when analysing twins as individuals. The observed series of cross-sectional associations were independent of sex, age, and measurement decade. Conclusions Smoking is associated with lower BMI and smoking cessation with higher BMI. However, the net effect of smoking and subsequent cessation on weight development appears to be minimal, i.e. never more than an average of 0.7 kg/m2

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0200140
JournalPLOS ONE
Volume13
Issue number7
Number of pages17
ISSN1932-6203
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018

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body mass index
Body Mass Index
Smoking
confidence interval
Confidence Intervals
Monozygotic Twins
Smoking Cessation
Databases
Weights and Measures
body weight
gender

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Piirtola, M., Jelenkovic, A., Latvala, A., Sund, R., Honda, C., Inui, F., ... Vlietinck, R. F. (2018). Association of current and former smoking with body mass index: A study of smoking discordant twin pairs from 21 twin cohorts. PLOS ONE, 13(7), [e0200140]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0200140
Piirtola, Maarit ; Jelenkovic, Aline ; Latvala, Antti ; Sund, Reijo ; Honda, Chika ; Inui, Fujio ; Watanabe, Mikio ; Tomizawa, Rie ; Iwatani, Yoshinori ; Ordoñana, Juan R. ; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F. ; Colodro-Conde, Lucia ; Tarnoki, Adam D. ; Tarnoki, David L. ; Martin, Nicholas G. ; Montgomery, Grant W. ; Medland, Sarah E. ; Rasmussen, Finn ; Tynelius, Per ; Tan, Qihua ; Zhang, Dongfeng ; Pang, Zengchang ; Rebato, Esther ; Stazi, Maria A. ; Fagnani, Corrado ; Brescianini, Sonia ; Busjahn, Andreas ; Harris, Jennifer R. ; Brandt, Ingunn ; Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius ; Cutler, Tessa L. ; Hopper, John L. ; Corley, Robin P. ; Huibregtse, Brooke M. ; Sung, Joohon ; Kim, Jina ; Lee, Jooyeon ; Lee, Sooji ; Gatz, Margaret ; Butler, David A. ; Franz, Carol E. ; Kremen, William S. ; Lyons, Michael J. ; Magnusson, Patrik K.E. ; Pedersen, Nancy L. ; Dahl Aslan, Anna K. ; Öncel, Sevgi Y. ; Aliev, Fazil ; Derom, Catherine A. ; Vlietinck, Robert F. / Association of current and former smoking with body mass index : A study of smoking discordant twin pairs from 21 twin cohorts. In: PLOS ONE. 2018 ; Vol. 13, No. 7.
@article{bac0f23a42394801a9ef1ed8a61fd6b2,
title = "Association of current and former smoking with body mass index: A study of smoking discordant twin pairs from 21 twin cohorts",
abstract = "Background Smokers tend to weigh less than never smokers, while successful quitting leads to an increase in body weight. Because smokers and non-smokers may differ in genetic and environmental family background, we analysed data from twin pairs in which the co-twins differed by their smoking behaviour to evaluate if the association between smoking and body mass index (BMI) remains after controlling for family background. Methods and findings The international CODATwins database includes information on smoking and BMI measured between 1960 and 2012 from 156,593 twin individuals 18–69 years of age. Individual-based data (230,378 measurements) and data of smoking discordant twin pairs (altogether 30,014 pairwise measurements, 36{\%} from monozygotic [MZ] pairs) were analysed with linear fixed-effects regression models by 10-year periods. In MZ pairs, the smoking co-twin had, on average, 0.57 kg/m2 lower BMI in men (95{\%} confidence interval (CI): 0.49, 0.70) and 0.65 kg/m2 lower BMI in women (95{\%} CI: 0.52, 0.79) than the never smoking co-twin. Former smokers had 0.70 kg/m2 higher BMI among men (95{\%} CI: 0.63, 0.78) and 0.62 kg/ m2 higher BMI among women (95{\%} CI: 0.51, 0.73) than their currently smoking MZ co-twins. Little difference in BMI was observed when comparing former smoking co-twins with their never smoking MZ co-twins (0.13 kg/m2, 95{\%} CI 0.04, 0.23 among men; -0.04 kg/m2, 95{\%} CI -0.16, 0.09 among women). The associations were similar within dizygotic pairs and when analysing twins as individuals. The observed series of cross-sectional associations were independent of sex, age, and measurement decade. Conclusions Smoking is associated with lower BMI and smoking cessation with higher BMI. However, the net effect of smoking and subsequent cessation on weight development appears to be minimal, i.e. never more than an average of 0.7 kg/m2",
author = "Maarit Piirtola and Aline Jelenkovic and Antti Latvala and Reijo Sund and Chika Honda and Fujio Inui and Mikio Watanabe and Rie Tomizawa and Yoshinori Iwatani and Ordo{\~n}ana, {Juan R.} and S{\'a}nchez-Romera, {Juan F.} and Lucia Colodro-Conde and Tarnoki, {Adam D.} and Tarnoki, {David L.} and Martin, {Nicholas G.} and Montgomery, {Grant W.} and Medland, {Sarah E.} and Finn Rasmussen and Per Tynelius and Qihua Tan and Dongfeng Zhang and Zengchang Pang and Esther Rebato and Stazi, {Maria A.} and Corrado Fagnani and Sonia Brescianini and Andreas Busjahn and Harris, {Jennifer R.} and Ingunn Brandt and Nilsen, {Thomas Sevenius} and Cutler, {Tessa L.} and Hopper, {John L.} and Corley, {Robin P.} and Huibregtse, {Brooke M.} and Joohon Sung and Jina Kim and Jooyeon Lee and Sooji Lee and Margaret Gatz and Butler, {David A.} and Franz, {Carol E.} and Kremen, {William S.} and Lyons, {Michael J.} and Magnusson, {Patrik K.E.} and Pedersen, {Nancy L.} and {Dahl Aslan}, {Anna K.} and {\"O}ncel, {Sevgi Y.} and Fazil Aliev and Derom, {Catherine A.} and Vlietinck, {Robert F.}",
year = "2018",
doi = "10.1371/journal.pone.0200140",
language = "English",
volume = "13",
journal = "P L o S One",
issn = "1932-6203",
publisher = "Public Library of Science",
number = "7",

}

Piirtola, M, Jelenkovic, A, Latvala, A, Sund, R, Honda, C, Inui, F, Watanabe, M, Tomizawa, R, Iwatani, Y, Ordoñana, JR, Sánchez-Romera, JF, Colodro-Conde, L, Tarnoki, AD, Tarnoki, DL, Martin, NG, Montgomery, GW, Medland, SE, Rasmussen, F, Tynelius, P, Tan, Q, Zhang, D, Pang, Z, Rebato, E, Stazi, MA, Fagnani, C, Brescianini, S, Busjahn, A, Harris, JR, Brandt, I, Nilsen, TS, Cutler, TL, Hopper, JL, Corley, RP, Huibregtse, BM, Sung, J, Kim, J, Lee, J, Lee, S, Gatz, M, Butler, DA, Franz, CE, Kremen, WS, Lyons, MJ, Magnusson, PKE, Pedersen, NL, Dahl Aslan, AK, Öncel, SY, Aliev, F, Derom, CA & Vlietinck, RF 2018, 'Association of current and former smoking with body mass index: A study of smoking discordant twin pairs from 21 twin cohorts', PLOS ONE, vol. 13, no. 7, e0200140. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0200140

Association of current and former smoking with body mass index : A study of smoking discordant twin pairs from 21 twin cohorts. / Piirtola, Maarit; Jelenkovic, Aline; Latvala, Antti; Sund, Reijo; Honda, Chika; Inui, Fujio; Watanabe, Mikio; Tomizawa, Rie; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Ordoñana, Juan R.; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F.; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Tarnoki, Adam D.; Tarnoki, David L.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Medland, Sarah E.; Rasmussen, Finn; Tynelius, Per; Tan, Qihua; Zhang, Dongfeng; Pang, Zengchang; Rebato, Esther; Stazi, Maria A.; Fagnani, Corrado; Brescianini, Sonia; Busjahn, Andreas; Harris, Jennifer R.; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius; Cutler, Tessa L.; Hopper, John L.; Corley, Robin P.; Huibregtse, Brooke M.; Sung, Joohon; Kim, Jina; Lee, Jooyeon; Lee, Sooji; Gatz, Margaret; Butler, David A.; Franz, Carol E.; Kremen, William S.; Lyons, Michael J.; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Dahl Aslan, Anna K.; Öncel, Sevgi Y.; Aliev, Fazil; Derom, Catherine A.; Vlietinck, Robert F.

In: PLOS ONE, Vol. 13, No. 7, e0200140, 2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Association of current and former smoking with body mass index

T2 - A study of smoking discordant twin pairs from 21 twin cohorts

AU - Piirtola, Maarit

AU - Jelenkovic, Aline

AU - Latvala, Antti

AU - Sund, Reijo

AU - Honda, Chika

AU - Inui, Fujio

AU - Watanabe, Mikio

AU - Tomizawa, Rie

AU - Iwatani, Yoshinori

AU - Ordoñana, Juan R.

AU - Sánchez-Romera, Juan F.

AU - Colodro-Conde, Lucia

AU - Tarnoki, Adam D.

AU - Tarnoki, David L.

AU - Martin, Nicholas G.

AU - Montgomery, Grant W.

AU - Medland, Sarah E.

AU - Rasmussen, Finn

AU - Tynelius, Per

AU - Tan, Qihua

AU - Zhang, Dongfeng

AU - Pang, Zengchang

AU - Rebato, Esther

AU - Stazi, Maria A.

AU - Fagnani, Corrado

AU - Brescianini, Sonia

AU - Busjahn, Andreas

AU - Harris, Jennifer R.

AU - Brandt, Ingunn

AU - Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius

AU - Cutler, Tessa L.

AU - Hopper, John L.

AU - Corley, Robin P.

AU - Huibregtse, Brooke M.

AU - Sung, Joohon

AU - Kim, Jina

AU - Lee, Jooyeon

AU - Lee, Sooji

AU - Gatz, Margaret

AU - Butler, David A.

AU - Franz, Carol E.

AU - Kremen, William S.

AU - Lyons, Michael J.

AU - Magnusson, Patrik K.E.

AU - Pedersen, Nancy L.

AU - Dahl Aslan, Anna K.

AU - Öncel, Sevgi Y.

AU - Aliev, Fazil

AU - Derom, Catherine A.

AU - Vlietinck, Robert F.

PY - 2018

Y1 - 2018

N2 - Background Smokers tend to weigh less than never smokers, while successful quitting leads to an increase in body weight. Because smokers and non-smokers may differ in genetic and environmental family background, we analysed data from twin pairs in which the co-twins differed by their smoking behaviour to evaluate if the association between smoking and body mass index (BMI) remains after controlling for family background. Methods and findings The international CODATwins database includes information on smoking and BMI measured between 1960 and 2012 from 156,593 twin individuals 18–69 years of age. Individual-based data (230,378 measurements) and data of smoking discordant twin pairs (altogether 30,014 pairwise measurements, 36% from monozygotic [MZ] pairs) were analysed with linear fixed-effects regression models by 10-year periods. In MZ pairs, the smoking co-twin had, on average, 0.57 kg/m2 lower BMI in men (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49, 0.70) and 0.65 kg/m2 lower BMI in women (95% CI: 0.52, 0.79) than the never smoking co-twin. Former smokers had 0.70 kg/m2 higher BMI among men (95% CI: 0.63, 0.78) and 0.62 kg/ m2 higher BMI among women (95% CI: 0.51, 0.73) than their currently smoking MZ co-twins. Little difference in BMI was observed when comparing former smoking co-twins with their never smoking MZ co-twins (0.13 kg/m2, 95% CI 0.04, 0.23 among men; -0.04 kg/m2, 95% CI -0.16, 0.09 among women). The associations were similar within dizygotic pairs and when analysing twins as individuals. The observed series of cross-sectional associations were independent of sex, age, and measurement decade. Conclusions Smoking is associated with lower BMI and smoking cessation with higher BMI. However, the net effect of smoking and subsequent cessation on weight development appears to be minimal, i.e. never more than an average of 0.7 kg/m2

AB - Background Smokers tend to weigh less than never smokers, while successful quitting leads to an increase in body weight. Because smokers and non-smokers may differ in genetic and environmental family background, we analysed data from twin pairs in which the co-twins differed by their smoking behaviour to evaluate if the association between smoking and body mass index (BMI) remains after controlling for family background. Methods and findings The international CODATwins database includes information on smoking and BMI measured between 1960 and 2012 from 156,593 twin individuals 18–69 years of age. Individual-based data (230,378 measurements) and data of smoking discordant twin pairs (altogether 30,014 pairwise measurements, 36% from monozygotic [MZ] pairs) were analysed with linear fixed-effects regression models by 10-year periods. In MZ pairs, the smoking co-twin had, on average, 0.57 kg/m2 lower BMI in men (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49, 0.70) and 0.65 kg/m2 lower BMI in women (95% CI: 0.52, 0.79) than the never smoking co-twin. Former smokers had 0.70 kg/m2 higher BMI among men (95% CI: 0.63, 0.78) and 0.62 kg/ m2 higher BMI among women (95% CI: 0.51, 0.73) than their currently smoking MZ co-twins. Little difference in BMI was observed when comparing former smoking co-twins with their never smoking MZ co-twins (0.13 kg/m2, 95% CI 0.04, 0.23 among men; -0.04 kg/m2, 95% CI -0.16, 0.09 among women). The associations were similar within dizygotic pairs and when analysing twins as individuals. The observed series of cross-sectional associations were independent of sex, age, and measurement decade. Conclusions Smoking is associated with lower BMI and smoking cessation with higher BMI. However, the net effect of smoking and subsequent cessation on weight development appears to be minimal, i.e. never more than an average of 0.7 kg/m2

U2 - 10.1371/journal.pone.0200140

DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0200140

M3 - Journal article

VL - 13

JO - P L o S One

JF - P L o S One

SN - 1932-6203

IS - 7

M1 - e0200140

ER -