Association between sweet drink intake and adiposity in Danish children participating in a long-term intervention study

B W Jensen, B M Nielsen, Ida Husby, Anna Bugge, B El-Naaman, Lars Bo Andersen, Ellen Trolle, B L Heitmann

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT: In several studies direct associations between intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and adiposity have been reported. However, most previous studies were conducted among Americans and assessed the intake in the sub-categories of soft drinks and sugar-sweetened beverages, only, rather than the total intake of sweet drinks. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS: We examined associations between total intake of sweet drinks and body mass index (BMI) and body fat in a non-US population. Using a longitudinal design increased sweet drink consumption was generally unassociated with subsequent change in BMI or sum of four skin-folds. BACKGROUND: In some previous studies direct associations between intake of soft drinks, sugar-sweetened beverages and adiposity have been reported. The majority of these studies were, however, conducted in the USA and it is uncertain if the results are applicable to non-US countries. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between sweet drink intake at age 6 and 9 years and the subsequent 3- to 7-year changes in body mass index (BMI) and sum of four skin-folds (Σ4SF). METHODS: Information on sweet drink intake (7 days food record) and physical activity (accelerometer) was obtained at age 6 years (n = 366) [Correction made here after initial online publication.] and 9 years (n = 269). Weight, height and Σ4SF were measured at age 6, 9 and 13 years. Additional information on socio-economic status, maternal BMI and pubertal status was obtained. RESULTS: No associations were observed between sweet drink intake at age 6 years and change in BMI or logΣ4SF from age 6 to 9 years or 6 to 13 years. Also, no associations were observed between change in sweet drink intake from age 6 to 9 years and subsequent change in BMI or logΣ4SF from age 9 to 13 years. A weak direct association was observed between sweet drink intake at age 9 years and change in logΣ4SF from age 9 to 13 years (per 100 g ∼ 3.38 fl oz) (β: 0.014, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.001 to 0.029, P = 0.06), while no association was seen for BMI. In supplementary analyses a similar association was observed for soft drinks (β: 0.087, 95% CI: 0.048 to 0.126, P = 0.001) but only in the intervention group. CONCLUSION: We observed associations between intake of sweet drinks and soft drinks and change in skin-fold thickness in a group of Danish children. However, as the associations did not remain significant when multiple testing was considered or was only significant among children from the intervention group, the results do not confirm or refute the direct association reported in previous studies.
Original languageEnglish
JournalPediatric Obesity
Volume8
Issue number4
Pages (from-to)259–270
ISSN2047-6302
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2013

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Adiposity
Body Mass Index
Skin
Confidence Intervals
Publications
Adipose Tissue
Mothers
Exercise
Weights and Measures
Food
Population

Cite this

Jensen, B W ; Nielsen, B M ; Husby, Ida ; Bugge, Anna ; El-Naaman, B ; Andersen, Lars Bo ; Trolle, Ellen ; Heitmann, B L. / Association between sweet drink intake and adiposity in Danish children participating in a long-term intervention study. In: Pediatric Obesity. 2013 ; Vol. 8, No. 4. pp. 259–270.
@article{7c2aaf3224e0427aad7c47059a954104,
title = "Association between sweet drink intake and adiposity in Danish children participating in a long-term intervention study",
abstract = "WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT: In several studies direct associations between intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and adiposity have been reported. However, most previous studies were conducted among Americans and assessed the intake in the sub-categories of soft drinks and sugar-sweetened beverages, only, rather than the total intake of sweet drinks. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS: We examined associations between total intake of sweet drinks and body mass index (BMI) and body fat in a non-US population. Using a longitudinal design increased sweet drink consumption was generally unassociated with subsequent change in BMI or sum of four skin-folds. BACKGROUND: In some previous studies direct associations between intake of soft drinks, sugar-sweetened beverages and adiposity have been reported. The majority of these studies were, however, conducted in the USA and it is uncertain if the results are applicable to non-US countries. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between sweet drink intake at age 6 and 9 years and the subsequent 3- to 7-year changes in body mass index (BMI) and sum of four skin-folds (Σ4SF). METHODS: Information on sweet drink intake (7 days food record) and physical activity (accelerometer) was obtained at age 6 years (n = 366) [Correction made here after initial online publication.] and 9 years (n = 269). Weight, height and Σ4SF were measured at age 6, 9 and 13 years. Additional information on socio-economic status, maternal BMI and pubertal status was obtained. RESULTS: No associations were observed between sweet drink intake at age 6 years and change in BMI or logΣ4SF from age 6 to 9 years or 6 to 13 years. Also, no associations were observed between change in sweet drink intake from age 6 to 9 years and subsequent change in BMI or logΣ4SF from age 9 to 13 years. A weak direct association was observed between sweet drink intake at age 9 years and change in logΣ4SF from age 9 to 13 years (per 100 g ∼ 3.38 fl oz) (β: 0.014, 95{\%} confidence interval [CI]: -0.001 to 0.029, P = 0.06), while no association was seen for BMI. In supplementary analyses a similar association was observed for soft drinks (β: 0.087, 95{\%} CI: 0.048 to 0.126, P = 0.001) but only in the intervention group. CONCLUSION: We observed associations between intake of sweet drinks and soft drinks and change in skin-fold thickness in a group of Danish children. However, as the associations did not remain significant when multiple testing was considered or was only significant among children from the intervention group, the results do not confirm or refute the direct association reported in previous studies.",
author = "Jensen, {B W} and Nielsen, {B M} and Ida Husby and Anna Bugge and B El-Naaman and Andersen, {Lars Bo} and Ellen Trolle and Heitmann, {B L}",
note = "Article first published online: 29 APR 2013",
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doi = "10.1111/j.2047-6310.2013.00170.x",
language = "English",
volume = "8",
pages = "259–270",
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Association between sweet drink intake and adiposity in Danish children participating in a long-term intervention study. / Jensen, B W; Nielsen, B M; Husby, Ida; Bugge, Anna; El-Naaman, B; Andersen, Lars Bo; Trolle, Ellen; Heitmann, B L.

In: Pediatric Obesity, Vol. 8, No. 4, 08.2013, p. 259–270.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Association between sweet drink intake and adiposity in Danish children participating in a long-term intervention study

AU - Jensen, B W

AU - Nielsen, B M

AU - Husby, Ida

AU - Bugge, Anna

AU - El-Naaman, B

AU - Andersen, Lars Bo

AU - Trolle, Ellen

AU - Heitmann, B L

N1 - Article first published online: 29 APR 2013

PY - 2013/8

Y1 - 2013/8

N2 - WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT: In several studies direct associations between intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and adiposity have been reported. However, most previous studies were conducted among Americans and assessed the intake in the sub-categories of soft drinks and sugar-sweetened beverages, only, rather than the total intake of sweet drinks. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS: We examined associations between total intake of sweet drinks and body mass index (BMI) and body fat in a non-US population. Using a longitudinal design increased sweet drink consumption was generally unassociated with subsequent change in BMI or sum of four skin-folds. BACKGROUND: In some previous studies direct associations between intake of soft drinks, sugar-sweetened beverages and adiposity have been reported. The majority of these studies were, however, conducted in the USA and it is uncertain if the results are applicable to non-US countries. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between sweet drink intake at age 6 and 9 years and the subsequent 3- to 7-year changes in body mass index (BMI) and sum of four skin-folds (Σ4SF). METHODS: Information on sweet drink intake (7 days food record) and physical activity (accelerometer) was obtained at age 6 years (n = 366) [Correction made here after initial online publication.] and 9 years (n = 269). Weight, height and Σ4SF were measured at age 6, 9 and 13 years. Additional information on socio-economic status, maternal BMI and pubertal status was obtained. RESULTS: No associations were observed between sweet drink intake at age 6 years and change in BMI or logΣ4SF from age 6 to 9 years or 6 to 13 years. Also, no associations were observed between change in sweet drink intake from age 6 to 9 years and subsequent change in BMI or logΣ4SF from age 9 to 13 years. A weak direct association was observed between sweet drink intake at age 9 years and change in logΣ4SF from age 9 to 13 years (per 100 g ∼ 3.38 fl oz) (β: 0.014, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.001 to 0.029, P = 0.06), while no association was seen for BMI. In supplementary analyses a similar association was observed for soft drinks (β: 0.087, 95% CI: 0.048 to 0.126, P = 0.001) but only in the intervention group. CONCLUSION: We observed associations between intake of sweet drinks and soft drinks and change in skin-fold thickness in a group of Danish children. However, as the associations did not remain significant when multiple testing was considered or was only significant among children from the intervention group, the results do not confirm or refute the direct association reported in previous studies.

AB - WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT: In several studies direct associations between intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and adiposity have been reported. However, most previous studies were conducted among Americans and assessed the intake in the sub-categories of soft drinks and sugar-sweetened beverages, only, rather than the total intake of sweet drinks. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS: We examined associations between total intake of sweet drinks and body mass index (BMI) and body fat in a non-US population. Using a longitudinal design increased sweet drink consumption was generally unassociated with subsequent change in BMI or sum of four skin-folds. BACKGROUND: In some previous studies direct associations between intake of soft drinks, sugar-sweetened beverages and adiposity have been reported. The majority of these studies were, however, conducted in the USA and it is uncertain if the results are applicable to non-US countries. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between sweet drink intake at age 6 and 9 years and the subsequent 3- to 7-year changes in body mass index (BMI) and sum of four skin-folds (Σ4SF). METHODS: Information on sweet drink intake (7 days food record) and physical activity (accelerometer) was obtained at age 6 years (n = 366) [Correction made here after initial online publication.] and 9 years (n = 269). Weight, height and Σ4SF were measured at age 6, 9 and 13 years. Additional information on socio-economic status, maternal BMI and pubertal status was obtained. RESULTS: No associations were observed between sweet drink intake at age 6 years and change in BMI or logΣ4SF from age 6 to 9 years or 6 to 13 years. Also, no associations were observed between change in sweet drink intake from age 6 to 9 years and subsequent change in BMI or logΣ4SF from age 9 to 13 years. A weak direct association was observed between sweet drink intake at age 9 years and change in logΣ4SF from age 9 to 13 years (per 100 g ∼ 3.38 fl oz) (β: 0.014, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.001 to 0.029, P = 0.06), while no association was seen for BMI. In supplementary analyses a similar association was observed for soft drinks (β: 0.087, 95% CI: 0.048 to 0.126, P = 0.001) but only in the intervention group. CONCLUSION: We observed associations between intake of sweet drinks and soft drinks and change in skin-fold thickness in a group of Danish children. However, as the associations did not remain significant when multiple testing was considered or was only significant among children from the intervention group, the results do not confirm or refute the direct association reported in previous studies.

U2 - 10.1111/j.2047-6310.2013.00170.x

DO - 10.1111/j.2047-6310.2013.00170.x

M3 - Journal article

C2 - 23630030

VL - 8

SP - 259

EP - 270

JO - Pediatric Obesity

JF - Pediatric Obesity

SN - 2047-6302

IS - 4

ER -