An Online Impedance Adaptation Controller for Decoding Skill Intelligence

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Variable Impedance control allows robots and humans to safely and efficiently
interact with unknown external environments. This tutorial introduces online
impedance adaptation control (OIAC) for variable compliant joint motions
in a range of control tasks: rapid (< 1s) movement control (i.e., whipping
to hit), arm and finger impedance quantification, multifunctional exoskele-
ton control, and robot-inspired human arm control hypothesis. The OIAC
has been introduced as a feedback control, which can be integrated into a
feedforward control, e.g., learned by data-driven methods. This integration
facilitates the understanding of human and robot arm control, closing a re-
search loop between biomechanics and robotics. It shows not only a research
way from biomechanics to robotics, but also another reserved one. This tu-
torial aims at presenting research examples and Python codes for advancing
the understanding of variable impedance adaptation in human and robot
motor control. It contributes to the state-of-the-art by providing an on-
line impedance adaptation controller for wearable robots (i.e., exoskeletons)
which can be used in robotic and biomechanical applications.
Original languageEnglish
JournalBiomimetic Intelligence and Robotics
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2023


  • variable impedance control
  • wearable robots
  • motor control
  • Deformable object manipulation


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