BACKGROUND: During ship transport of organic cargo e.g. soybeans in bulk or textiles in containers, there is a risk of pests damaging the cargo during transport as well as of unwanted global spread of organisms. Consequently, fumigation of the shipped goods is recommended. While aiming to protect the cargo from being damaged by pests during the transport time, fumigation constitutes a risk to the health of seafarers and port workers and even fatal cases are seen. Phosphine gas is increasingly applied for fumigation. Based on former experiences this article aims to describe the risk and to provide recommendations for prevention. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All reports of acute occupational exposures to phosphine in the maritime shipping industry to the Belgian Poison Centre were analysed and compared to reports in a study by ANSES (Agence nationale de sécurité sanitaire de l'alimentation, de l'environnement et du travail), which collected data from the French Poison Centres. Data were registered and analysed between the 1st of January 1999 and the 31 of December 2018. RESULTS: The reported incidents have so far been rather few but seem to have increased over the last years. Symptoms are gastro-intestinal, neurologic and respiratory and often seem "vague" and non-specific and are often difficult to recognise for first responders. In the cases where the aetiology of the incident is known, there often seems to be a lack of clear information about the risk and options for mitigation in workplaces and among the workers. Twelve publications of case reports were included from the literature review that showed the same patterns as found in the registered incident reports. CONCLUSIONS: There seems to be an increase in incidents of acute poisoning from phosphine worldwide. This increase could be linked to the phasing out of methyl bromide in the Montreal Protocol but may also have other explanations. Strict precautions are needed when using phosphine for fumigation of ship cargoes and containers. Since symptoms are often vague, first-responders need to pay attention to the possible occurrence of acute phosphine intoxication as it may be life threatening. Phosphine intoxication remains a diagnosis nor to underestimate not to miss. Further monitoring and research is needed. Preventive actions are mandatory. It is essential to implement in a strict way the existing legislation of an in-transit fumigation with phosphine. Training of the crew and good communication between the different actors during an in-transit fumigation (ship-owner, captain, fumigator, crew, longshoremen) is the key of a good prevention of accidents.
- acute phosphine intoxication
- incidence reports