Among measles unvaccinated infants in Guinea-Bissau, we tested whether case infants with acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI), especially ALRI caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), were more likely to be Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG)-unvaccinated and to have no scar after BCG vaccination than were control infants without symptoms of ALRI. Three hundred and eighty-six case infants with ALRI were identified at a paediatric clinic (N = 84), a health centre (N = 82), and in a community morbidity surveillance system (N = 220). Control infants were matched on sex, age, and district and were also measles unvaccinated. In ALRI case infants, the adjusted OR of being BCG unvaccinated was 2.87 (1.31-6.32), 1.72 (0.48-6.19) in boys and 4.45 (1.48-13.4) in girls. Among BCG vaccinated ALRI case infants, the adjusted OR of having no BCG scar was 1.54 (0.86-2.75), 0.93 (0.45-1.91) in boys and 2.70 (1.21-6.02) in girls. In ALRI case infants with RSV infection, similar trends were observed. BCG vaccination may have a non-targeted protective effect against ALRI, the effect being most marked in girls.
- Acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI)
- Bacille Calmette Guérin vaccine (BCG)
- Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)