Acute effects of delayed-release hydrolyzed pine nut oil on glucose tolerance, incretins, ghrelin and appetite in healthy humans

Karina V. Sørensen, Svend S. Korfitzen, Mads H. Kaspersen, Elisabeth Rexen Ulven, Jeppe H. Ekberg, Annette Bauer-Brandl, Trond Ulven, Kurt Højlund*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Bacground & aim: Pinolenic acid, a major component (~20%) of pine nut oil, is a dual agonist of the free fatty acid receptors, FFA1 and FFA4, which may regulate release of incretins and ghrelin from the gut. Here, we investigated the acute effects of hydrolyzed pine nut oil (PNO-FFA), delivered to the small intestine by delayed-release capsules, on glucose tolerance, insulin, incretin and ghrelin secretion, and appetite. Methods: In two cross-over studies, we evaluated 3 g unhydrolyzed pine nut oil (PNO-TG) or 3 g PNO-FFA versus no oil in eight healthy, non-obese subjects (study 1), and 3 g PNO-FFA or 6 g PNO-FFA versus no oil in ten healthy, overweight/obese subjects (study 2) in both studies given in delayed-release capsules 30 min prior to a 4-h-oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Outcomes were circulating levels of glucose, insulin, GLP-1, GIP, ghrelin, appetite and gastrointestinal tolerability during OGTT. Results: Both 3 g PNO-FFA in study 1 and 6 g PNO-FFA in study 2 markedly increased GLP-1 levels (p < 0.001) and attenuated ghrelin levels (p < 0.001) during the last 2 h of the OGTT compared with no oil. In study 2, these effects of PNO-FFA were accompanied by an increased satiety and fullness (p < 0.03), and decreased prospective food consumption (p < 0.05). PNO-FFA caused only small reductions in glucose and insulin levels during the first 2 h of the OGTT. Conclusions: Our results provide evidence that PNO-FFA delivered to the small intestine by delayed-release capsules may reduce appetite by augmenting GLP-1 release and attenuating ghrelin secretion in the late postprandial state. Clinical trial registry numbers: NCT03062592 and NCT03305367.

Original languageEnglish
JournalClinical Nutrition
ISSN0261-5614
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 1. Oct 2020

Keywords

  • Appetite
  • Free fatty acid receptors
  • Incretins
  • Oral glucose tolerance test
  • Pine nut oil
  • Pinolenic acid

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