Access to parks and physical activity: an eight country comparison

Jasper Schipperijn, Ester Cerin, Marc A Adams, Rodrigo Reis, Graham Smith, Kelli Cain, Lars B Christiansen, Delfien van Dyck, Christopher Gidlow, Lawrence D Frank, Josef Mitáš, Michael Pratt, Deborah Salvo, Grant Schofield, James F Sallis

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Abstract Several systematic reviews have reported mixed associations between access to parks and physical activity, and suggest that this is due to inconsistencies in the study methods or differences across countries. An international study using consistent methods is needed to investigate the association between access to parks and physical activity. The International Physical Activity and Environment Network (IPEN) Adult Study is a multi-country cross-sectional study using a common design and consistent methods Accelerometer, survey and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data for 6,181 participants from 12 cities in 8 countries (Belgium, Brazil, Czech Republic, Denmark, Mexico, New Zealand, UK, USA) were used to estimate the strength and shape of associations of 11 measures of park access (1 perceived and 10 GIS-based measures) with accelerometer-based moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and four types of self-reported leisure-time physical activity. Associations were estimated using generalized additive mixed models. More parks within 1 km from participants' homes were associated with greater leisure-time physical activity and accelerometer-measured MVPA. Respondents who lived in the neighborhoods with the most parks did on average 24 minutes more MVPA per week than those living in the neighborhoods with the lowest number of parks. Perceived proximity to a park was positively associated with multiple leisure-time physical activity outcomes. Associations were homogeneous across all cities studied. Living in neighborhoods with many parks could contribute with up to 1/6 of the recommended weekly Having multiple parks nearby was the strongest positive correlate of PA. To increase comparability and validity of park access measures, we recommend that researchers, planners and policy makers use the number of parks within 1 km travel distance of homes as an objective indicator for park access in relation to physical activity.
Original languageEnglish
JournalUrban Forestry & Urban Greening
Volume27
Pages (from-to)253-263
ISSN1618-8667
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017

Fingerprint

physical activity
accelerometer
geographic information systems
comparison
study method
systematic review
Belgium
cross-sectional studies
Denmark
travel
Czech Republic
researchers
Mexico
methodology

Keywords

  • IPEN
  • accelerometry
  • GIS
  • leisure-time
  • exercise
  • multi-country
  • recreation

Cite this

Schipperijn, Jasper ; Cerin, Ester ; Adams, Marc A ; Reis, Rodrigo ; Smith, Graham ; Cain, Kelli ; Christiansen, Lars B ; Dyck, Delfien van ; Gidlow, Christopher ; Frank, Lawrence D ; Mitáš, Josef ; Pratt, Michael ; Salvo, Deborah ; Schofield, Grant ; Sallis, James F. / Access to parks and physical activity: an eight country comparison. In: Urban Forestry & Urban Greening. 2017 ; Vol. 27. pp. 253-263.
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title = "Access to parks and physical activity: an eight country comparison",
abstract = "Abstract Several systematic reviews have reported mixed associations between access to parks and physical activity, and suggest that this is due to inconsistencies in the study methods or differences across countries. An international study using consistent methods is needed to investigate the association between access to parks and physical activity. The International Physical Activity and Environment Network (IPEN) Adult Study is a multi-country cross-sectional study using a common design and consistent methods Accelerometer, survey and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data for 6,181 participants from 12 cities in 8 countries (Belgium, Brazil, Czech Republic, Denmark, Mexico, New Zealand, UK, USA) were used to estimate the strength and shape of associations of 11 measures of park access (1 perceived and 10 GIS-based measures) with accelerometer-based moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and four types of self-reported leisure-time physical activity. Associations were estimated using generalized additive mixed models. More parks within 1 km from participants' homes were associated with greater leisure-time physical activity and accelerometer-measured MVPA. Respondents who lived in the neighborhoods with the most parks did on average 24 minutes more MVPA per week than those living in the neighborhoods with the lowest number of parks. Perceived proximity to a park was positively associated with multiple leisure-time physical activity outcomes. Associations were homogeneous across all cities studied. Living in neighborhoods with many parks could contribute with up to 1/6 of the recommended weekly Having multiple parks nearby was the strongest positive correlate of PA. To increase comparability and validity of park access measures, we recommend that researchers, planners and policy makers use the number of parks within 1 km travel distance of homes as an objective indicator for park access in relation to physical activity.",
keywords = "IPEN, accelerometry, GIS, leisure-time, exercise, multi-country, recreation",
author = "Jasper Schipperijn and Ester Cerin and Adams, {Marc A} and Rodrigo Reis and Graham Smith and Kelli Cain and Christiansen, {Lars B} and Dyck, {Delfien van} and Christopher Gidlow and Frank, {Lawrence D} and Josef Mit{\'a}š and Michael Pratt and Deborah Salvo and Grant Schofield and Sallis, {James F}",
year = "2017",
doi = "10.1016/j.ufug.2017.08.010",
language = "English",
volume = "27",
pages = "253--263",
journal = "Urban Forestry & Urban Greening",
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Schipperijn, J, Cerin, E, Adams, MA, Reis, R, Smith, G, Cain, K, Christiansen, LB, Dyck, DV, Gidlow, C, Frank, LD, Mitáš, J, Pratt, M, Salvo, D, Schofield, G & Sallis, JF 2017, 'Access to parks and physical activity: an eight country comparison', Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, vol. 27, pp. 253-263. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2017.08.010

Access to parks and physical activity: an eight country comparison. / Schipperijn, Jasper; Cerin, Ester; Adams, Marc A; Reis, Rodrigo; Smith, Graham; Cain, Kelli; Christiansen, Lars B; Dyck, Delfien van; Gidlow, Christopher; Frank, Lawrence D; Mitáš, Josef; Pratt, Michael; Salvo, Deborah; Schofield, Grant; Sallis, James F.

In: Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, Vol. 27, 2017, p. 253-263.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Access to parks and physical activity: an eight country comparison

AU - Schipperijn, Jasper

AU - Cerin, Ester

AU - Adams, Marc A

AU - Reis, Rodrigo

AU - Smith, Graham

AU - Cain, Kelli

AU - Christiansen, Lars B

AU - Dyck, Delfien van

AU - Gidlow, Christopher

AU - Frank, Lawrence D

AU - Mitáš, Josef

AU - Pratt, Michael

AU - Salvo, Deborah

AU - Schofield, Grant

AU - Sallis, James F

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - Abstract Several systematic reviews have reported mixed associations between access to parks and physical activity, and suggest that this is due to inconsistencies in the study methods or differences across countries. An international study using consistent methods is needed to investigate the association between access to parks and physical activity. The International Physical Activity and Environment Network (IPEN) Adult Study is a multi-country cross-sectional study using a common design and consistent methods Accelerometer, survey and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data for 6,181 participants from 12 cities in 8 countries (Belgium, Brazil, Czech Republic, Denmark, Mexico, New Zealand, UK, USA) were used to estimate the strength and shape of associations of 11 measures of park access (1 perceived and 10 GIS-based measures) with accelerometer-based moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and four types of self-reported leisure-time physical activity. Associations were estimated using generalized additive mixed models. More parks within 1 km from participants' homes were associated with greater leisure-time physical activity and accelerometer-measured MVPA. Respondents who lived in the neighborhoods with the most parks did on average 24 minutes more MVPA per week than those living in the neighborhoods with the lowest number of parks. Perceived proximity to a park was positively associated with multiple leisure-time physical activity outcomes. Associations were homogeneous across all cities studied. Living in neighborhoods with many parks could contribute with up to 1/6 of the recommended weekly Having multiple parks nearby was the strongest positive correlate of PA. To increase comparability and validity of park access measures, we recommend that researchers, planners and policy makers use the number of parks within 1 km travel distance of homes as an objective indicator for park access in relation to physical activity.

AB - Abstract Several systematic reviews have reported mixed associations between access to parks and physical activity, and suggest that this is due to inconsistencies in the study methods or differences across countries. An international study using consistent methods is needed to investigate the association between access to parks and physical activity. The International Physical Activity and Environment Network (IPEN) Adult Study is a multi-country cross-sectional study using a common design and consistent methods Accelerometer, survey and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data for 6,181 participants from 12 cities in 8 countries (Belgium, Brazil, Czech Republic, Denmark, Mexico, New Zealand, UK, USA) were used to estimate the strength and shape of associations of 11 measures of park access (1 perceived and 10 GIS-based measures) with accelerometer-based moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and four types of self-reported leisure-time physical activity. Associations were estimated using generalized additive mixed models. More parks within 1 km from participants' homes were associated with greater leisure-time physical activity and accelerometer-measured MVPA. Respondents who lived in the neighborhoods with the most parks did on average 24 minutes more MVPA per week than those living in the neighborhoods with the lowest number of parks. Perceived proximity to a park was positively associated with multiple leisure-time physical activity outcomes. Associations were homogeneous across all cities studied. Living in neighborhoods with many parks could contribute with up to 1/6 of the recommended weekly Having multiple parks nearby was the strongest positive correlate of PA. To increase comparability and validity of park access measures, we recommend that researchers, planners and policy makers use the number of parks within 1 km travel distance of homes as an objective indicator for park access in relation to physical activity.

KW - IPEN

KW - accelerometry

KW - GIS

KW - leisure-time

KW - exercise

KW - multi-country

KW - recreation

U2 - 10.1016/j.ufug.2017.08.010

DO - 10.1016/j.ufug.2017.08.010

M3 - Journal article

VL - 27

SP - 253

EP - 263

JO - Urban Forestry & Urban Greening

JF - Urban Forestry & Urban Greening

SN - 1618-8667

ER -