A review of methods and data to determine raw material criticality

Dieuwertje Schrijvers, Alessandra Hool*, Gian Andrea Blengini, Wei Qiang Chen, Jo Dewulf, Roderick Eggert, Layla van Ellen, Roland Gauss, James Goddin, Komal Habib, Christian Hagelüken, Atsufumi Hirohata, Margarethe Hofmann-Amtenbrink, Jan Kosmol, Maïté Le Gleuher, Milan Grohol, Anthony Ku, Min Ha Lee, Gang Liu, Keisuke NansaiPhilip Nuss, David Peck, Armin Reller, Guido Sonnemann, Luis Tercero, Andrea Thorenz, Patrick A. Wäger

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReviewResearchpeer-review

Abstract

The assessment of the criticality of raw materials allows the identification of the likelihood of a supply disruption of a material and the vulnerability of a system (e.g. a national economy, technology, or company) to this disruption. Inconclusive outcomes of various studies suggest that criticality assessments would benefit from the identification of best practices. To prepare the field for such guidance, this paper aims to clarify the mechanisms that affect methodological choices which influence the results of a study. This is achieved via literature review and round table discussions among international experts. The paper demonstrates that criticality studies are divergent in the system under study, the anticipated risk, the purpose of the study, and material selection. These differences in goal and scope naturally result in different choices regarding indicator selection, the required level of aggregation as well as the subsequent choice of aggregation method, and the need for a threshold value. However, this link is often weak, which suggests a lack of understanding of cause-and-effect mechanisms of indicators and outcomes. Data availability is a key factor that limits the evaluation of criticality. Furthermore, data quality, including both data uncertainty and data representativeness, is rarely addressed in the interpretation and communication of results. Clear guidance in the formulation of goals and scopes of criticality studies, the selection of adequate indicators and aggregation methods, and the interpretation of the outcomes, are important initial steps in improving the quality of criticality assessments.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104617
JournalResources, Conservation and Recycling
Volume155
Number of pages17
ISSN0921-3449
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2020

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Keywords

  • Critical raw materials
  • Critical resources
  • Criticality assessment
  • Material criticality
  • Strategic raw materials

Cite this

Schrijvers, D., Hool, A., Blengini, G. A., Chen, W. Q., Dewulf, J., Eggert, R., van Ellen, L., Gauss, R., Goddin, J., Habib, K., Hagelüken, C., Hirohata, A., Hofmann-Amtenbrink, M., Kosmol, J., Le Gleuher, M., Grohol, M., Ku, A., Lee, M. H., Liu, G., ... Wäger, P. A. (2020). A review of methods and data to determine raw material criticality. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 155, [104617]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2019.104617