A novel sustainable multi-objective optimization model for forward and reverse logistics system under demand uncertainty

Navid Zarbakhshnia, Devika Kannan*, Reza Kiani Mavi, Hamed Soleimani

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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The paper aims to present a multi-product, multi-stage, multi-period, and multi-objective, probabilistic mixed-integer linear programming model for a sustainable forward and reverse logistics network problem. It looks at original and return products to determine both flows in the supply chain—forward and reverse—simultaneously. Besides, to establish centres of forward and reverse logistics activities and make a decision for transportation strategy in a more close-to-real manner, the demand is considered uncertain. We attempt to represent all major dimensions in the objective functions: First objective function is minimizing the processing, transportation, fixed establishing cost and costs of CO2 emission as environmental impacts. Furthermore, the processing time of reverse logistics activities is developed as the second objective function. Finally, in the third objective function, it is tried to maximize social responsibility. Indeed, a complete sustainable approach is developed in this paper. In addition, this model provides novel environmental constraint and social matters in the objective functions as its innovation and contribution. Another contribution of this paper is using probabilistic programming to manage uncertain parameters. Moreover, a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) is configured to achieve Pareto front solutions. The performance of the NSGA-II is compared with a multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) by proposing 10 appropriate test problems according to five comparison metrics using analysis of variance (ANOVA) to validate the modeling approach. Overall, according to the results of ANOVA and the comparison metrics, the performance of NSGA-II algorithm is more satisfying compared with that of MOPSO algorithm.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAnnals of Operations Research
Pages (from-to)843-880
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2020


  • Analysis of variance (ANOVA)
  • Multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO)
  • Multi-objective probabilistic programming
  • Non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II)
  • Social responsibility
  • Supply chain
  • Sustainable reverse logistics


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